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Bhakkar, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Assignment Writing
  • Dialogue Writing
  • Documentary
  • Drama Writing
  • Explainer Video
  • Feature Writing
  • Film Adaptation
  • Film Production
  • Movie Magic Screenwriter
  • Non Profit Consulting


Hi! I would love to provide script writing and script coverage/analysis services to help you in your creative journey! Message me today to discuss your notes, your goals, and the type of script you are looking to make. Together we can craft a great plot, memorable characters, and a compelling pitch! I have 2.5 years of experience in hosting/producing a podcast and YouTube series and performing videography and scriptwriting services for a university media production company. My best work has been... View more

View Service Offered By Hire Expert

  • Business Proposal Writing
  • Evaluation Design
  • Foundation Grants
  • Government Proposals
  • Grant Writing
  • Proposal Writing
  • State Grants
  • Article Editing

New researchers face difficulty in understanding of what a research proposal is, and how much importance it has in their future career. Putting directly, a research is only is as good as the proposal that it caters to. A proper and articulated proposal gives a very good impression for your future research.My name is Sonia and I have 5+ years of experience in writing proposals, essays, article and blogs related to any field or topic. I will suggest you newly emerging research topics for your prop... View more

View Service Offered By Mr. Freelancerr

Darya Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Art Research
  • Behavioral Research
  • Blog Writing
  • Content Writing
  • Fact Checking
  • Industry Research
  • Keyword Research

Internet research & report writing

Are you looking for a 100 percent original, high-quality, well-researched blog post related to health and wellness (mental or physical)? I''m your girl! I have many repeat clients and have written hundreds of blog posts. I know how to craft a top-notch article that is engaging and easy for your readers to absorb. Why hire me? I''m a professional writer with a bachelor''s degree in journalism from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and 10+ years of writing experience. I have written professionally for magazin... View more

View Service Offered By Online Digital Expert

Newcastle upon Tyne, England, United Kingdom

Creative Writing

  • Report Writing
  • Writing Research & Fact Checking

Conducting research before and during the writing process. Preparing material for assignments, which includes planning, outline, and synopsis. Conducting thorough fact-checks before submitting any work. Ensuring the logical flow of all writing produced. Attending feedback sessions and making revisions suggested by the client, publisher or editors. Attending training sessions and workshops View more

View Service Offered By Expert.freelancer. ah

BHAKKAR, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Assignments
  • Analytical Writing
  • Analytics Reports
  • Communication Skills

Hello, Welcome to my Gig! Are you looking for a competent and skilled teacher? I am there. I am currently studying. I''m an experienced hand writer who will provide quality handwriting for your desired needs. Handwritten letters and notes are far more likely to be opened by potential clients and customers than generic printed mail. If you need handwritten letters or notes, I''m the person for the job! REQUIREMENTS: Your work is to be written down YOU WILL GET: The completed work in jpeg, png, sca... View more

View Service Offered By Bharat Lal 3

Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan

  • Academic Editing
  • Academic Essays
  • Academic Research
  • Academic Writing
  • Curriculum Development

Academic assignment, report, and project

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Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

  • Article Writing
  • Microsoft Word
  • Package and Freight Delivery Industry
  • Presentation Design
  • Quality Assurance
  • Review Writing

Dear Team, Greeting of the day. I am chartered account from UAE. I am professional in writing project related to any topic. I am rated fiver seller you can review my profile. My promises: · On time delivery · No plagiarism · Original work · Professional presentation · word and PDF both files please discuss before placing order View more

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Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan

  • Biography Writing
  • Form Filling
  • Story Writing

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Delhi, Delhi, India

  • Bengali Translation
  • English Language
  • Hindi Translation

Data entry,assignment writing

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View Service Offered By Neha Sahar

Wah Cantt, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Computer Engineer
  • Computer Science
  • Requirements Analysis

Assignment writing

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Gojra, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Copywriting
  • Image Design
  • Thumbnail Design

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View Service Offered By Tehreem Anjum Khan

Ajman, Ajman, United Arab Emirates

  • Educational Writing
  • Journal Writing

assignment writing

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Malabe, Western, Sri Lanka

  • Course Material
  • Sales & Marketing Management

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View Service Offered By Muhammad Asif 45

Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan

  • English Translation
  • French Translation
  • Urdu Translation

Hi, Welcome to my profile. I hope you are well and happy. My name is Rimsha and I am a assignment writer and translater .I have been 1 year of experience on assignment writing  I PROVIDE Clint satisfaction Money back guarantee Professional services  24/7 available. Feel free to order. I will be looking forward to hear from you thanks . Rimsha View more

View Service Offered By Faizan Shabbir 97

Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Data Management
  • Typing Work

Typing work, Assignments writing

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View Service Offered By bilal shafiq 2

Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Educational Consulting
  • Language Translation
  • Translation English To Urdu
  • Translation Urdu To English

expert in academic & assignment writing

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View Service Offered By Yusuf Asmau

Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

  • Business Writing

I can help you in carrying out all your academic and business writing including but not limited to: - Business proposals - Statement of purpose - Research writing - Assignments and seminars, Project proposals - Project writing. Timely delivery, plagiarism fred and grammatical errors. I can write down all your assignments with my own handwriting not only typing. View more

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Faridabad, Haryana, India

  • Article Rewriting

Data Entry and Assignment Writing Jobs

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View Service Offered By Nasreen Afsar

Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan

With a focused expertise in zoology, chemistry, and botany, I excel in assignment and content writing. My proficiency extends to creating original assignments and adeptly refining existing ones. Serving as a dedicated content writer, I specialize in producing engaging and informative content. My experience underscores a commitment to delivering top-notch quality work to meet the distinct requirements of each project. View more

View Service Offered By RABIA TARIQ 7

Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Scientific Research

Assignment writing servics

Professional Assignment Writing Services Are you in need of reliable and high-quality assignment writing assistance? Look no further. I offer comprehensive assignment writing services that will meet your academic needs and exceed your expectations. With a strong background in writing field, I am equipped to handle assignments across various subjects and academic levels. Whether it''s a research paper, essay, case study, or any other type of assignment, I will ensure it is meticulously researched,... View more

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Hire Professional Freelance Assignment Writers

Writing is a form of communication which allows representing messages with clarity. It is a tool used to make languages be read. A writer is an individual who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers create a variety of works in fictional and non fictional domains. Skilled assignment writers who are able to use language to express ideas well often pick up writing as a profession.

Writers have also found a place in the academic life of students in the form of professional assignment writers. As the academic life of a student progresses, assignment writing on different topics becomes part of the curriculum for teachers or professors to assess on. Many students take help of assignment writers to make sure they get the best grade on their subjects.  If you are a school student, graduate, master degree or doctoral candidate, who wishes to take support and guidance on assignments, you can hire assignment writer for this task. A number of freelance assignment writers are also available online through online top freelance sites.

What Do Freelance Assignment Writers Do?

They are writing experts who provide assistance on different topics as required for the assignment. Role of Assignment writer may include-

Apply the knowledge and writing skill to fulfil the assignment to high levels of standard

Conduct subject-specific research and help clients to meet the guidelines in relation to assignment writing

Write a paper on subject assigned, with an undefined number of sources

Write a specific type of paper with a predefined topic, number of sources and other mandatory requirements

Proofread writing to make sure there are no spelling or grammar mistakes

Paraphrase assignment in way that its clears plagiarism checks

If you wish to hire assignment writers for your academic needs, you can connect with best online assignment writers who provide this service as freelancers too. In order to hire good freelance assignment writers, please ensure you have considered below mentioned skills before signing a deal.

Should have researching skills to collect data from reliable sources to feed in assignment

Knowledge of academic, assignment writing and referencing styles as per guidelines

Excellent written English and professional style of writing

Should be subject specific expert

Able to comprehend guidelines given for assignment and implement the same

Qualification of Freelance Assignment Writers

Preferably should hold Masters degree in specific subject

Adept knowledge about subject of study

Experience of writing numerous academic or non academic assignments

Benefits of Hiring Freelance Assignment Writing Services

They are subject specific experts who assist in writing impressive assignments for academic courses. There are several best online assignment writers   offering professional and exceptional writing service on some of the best websites to hire freelancers, like Guru. These knowledgeable writers have provided assignment help to a number of students and facilitated in earning good grades for them in assessments.

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How to Format a Writer’s Assignment to Get Better Content Back

  • Written By Lena Katz
  • Updated: May 27, 2023

Now that every brand and company is looking for a process to create and publish owned content, many are in a position to need writers and other creatives (web designers, photographers, social media specialists). Whether your company is hiring an in-house team, engaging an agency or hiring consultants/freelancers, there will be a learning curve as the new creatives learn about your brand and its needs.

Unless you are hiring someone you’ve worked with for many years, who understands your industry inside-out and can pick up brand style instantly, you will probably need to supply parameters and ideas for what you want written, designed and produced. Since a lot of brand managers don’t know right off the bat, or are in a hurry to get this new and burdensome content project off their plate, the impulse may be to give very minimal instructions — i.e., a list of venues that need to be covered, or “Please give me 10 blogs about the beauty industry.” Even for the most willing writer or designer, that’s probably not enough information.

Looking at a general content need from the broadest perspective — the first thing to explain is, what message or story do you want this content to communicate? What is its intended purpose?  From there, what are the company brand voice guidelines that will apply to this assignment? How long would you like it to be? The more detailed you get with your parameters, the better you guide the freelancer. The document that contains all this instruction is referred to as the creative brief, writer’s brief, outline or sometimes, simply “the assignment.”

We asked several professionals who have been on both sides of the fence how they create briefs or assignments, and what’s worked for them in the past when working with companies.

Why do you need a brief/assignment?

“Creative briefs are critical to ensuring that your project conveys the correct message,” says Sonia Diaz , VP at Balsera Communications . As a public affairs and communications strategy firm for politicians, unions and major corporations, Balsera has to be very conscious and precise with messaging at all times – and more than that, make sure the messaging is consistent across multiple languages.

As many brands switch to using platforms instead of agencies, brand managers often have to craft briefs themselves instead of relying on agency professionals. The results can be dramatically different. Here is an assignment brief from a popular freelancing platform. It is sparse.

Example of an assignment brief that is so sparse it's pointless.

It provides virtually no details, no word count. I can’t even tell if this article is for an English or Spanish audience, or how it would relate to the people of Peru. Most people could not know for sure whether they would be a good fit for this gig based on the information provided.

Now, let’s look at an example of a detailed brief/assignment.

Example of a good assignment brief email to a freelance writer.

This concept provides exactly what the writer needs in order to know whether they should raise their hand for the assignment. And if they do so, it’s with a good-faith guarantee that they can produce an excellent, on-message piece of content. You have the word count, the goal of the post, where the post will be published, what tone to use — even an outline to get the writer started. When a project manager assigns a writer something using this type of brief, they should expect a fairly clean first draft.

Elements that should be included in a brief or assignment:

1. content type.

What type of content do you want created — a blog post? A white paper? Press release? Product description?

2. The target audience

Providing the target audience helps the writer create a personalized piece of content.

The language used in an article aimed at a CMO is much different than the language you would use for a millennial consumer in the middle household income range. When defining the target audience, consider building out a persona (aka avatar) that includes the target’s age, gender, interests, job title, income, needs, and affinity to your product/service. This helps the writer know what tone and approach to take.

Meredith Hoffa , who edits the online magazine of a popular mom’s humor brand, always gives a few differentiators between her website’s POV and other similar sites out there.

“I tell writers I want their stories to be voice-driven but grounded in reality. I want them to let loose, but not lose their humanity in trying to be funny or jokey. The funny should serve the spine of the story. Readers should read the piece and come away thinking ‘I want to be best friends with that author.’”

3. The goal

What is the purpose of your article? The takeaway? What problem does it solve or what action do you want the reader to take?

“To ensure that your team is properly translating your vision, it is important you have defined certain aspects of the project, such as, ‘Who is my audience?’ and ‘What is the feeling you want people to get when they see your product or read your slogan or piece?’” Sonia from Balsera says. “These factors will help in deciding appropriate language, format, font type and tone, to name a few.”

This information helps the writer craft a piece of content that does what you want it to do and is on message with your brand.

4. Company style guidelines

“We don’t always know the nuances of every business we write about, such as who the competitors and what the no-go topics are,” says content consultant   Bob Curley , whose clients range from Healthline to Business Traveller to Disney (one of the most rigorously controlled brands of all time). He prefers assignments to contain less creative direction, but plenty of detailed instruction on company style and branding guidelines.

“For case studies, a key element of a brief would be the brand style and language. What words should I use to describe clients and the institution and its partners? Also, as someone coming from outside the organization it’s helpful to know what the vernacular is in terms of describing people’s jobs and titles.”

5. Where the piece will be published

In the online casino example above, and equally as much for the corporate assignments that Bob Curley often gets, the ultimate destination for this piece of content matters a great deal. Larger corporations often want slightly different tone and language for different types of content: An easy example would be to compare a brand’s social media accounts with its corporate About Us section. Even if writing a typical “magazine-style article,” a writer would need to know whether it’s for a blog and should include internal/outbound links, or whether it’s for publication in print, or will be published on a third party site.

Sharing where the article will be published also allows the writer to research the tone and feel of the site.

6. Key performance indicators

This element of the brief is new to people who come from editorial, and even some PR agencies don’t include it, though many do. Marketers, though, tend to find the KPIs the missing piece and most easy to way to gauge whether a content initiative has worked for their brand. The key is to define what those KPIs are, since it typically isn’t direct sales (although sometimes it can be) or even page views.

We should always be thinking, “How is this content going to funnel, or flywheel my reader into being an active customer or advocate?” says Kate Madonna-Hindes , who owns the content marketing agency Girl Meets Geek and has worked for major brands like Home Depot and AMEX.  “If we’re thinking from the end-game, (conversion) we write to convert.”

So what does conversion look like for a marketer or brand manager? That depends. It could be newsletter signups or form submissions. It could be requests for more information. It could be traffic driven to the reservations page. It could be page views, or what many people consider more valuable these days: return visits to your site.

“To gauge if content is successful, page views don’t always tell the story. It’s wise to use Google’s heat-mapping to see what they are doing while on the page,” says Kate.

If you’re doing this, you may want to instruct your writer to include a certain number of internal and outbound links, a place for an infographic or poll, and a prompt to share their email address for newsletter content or contact from a company representative.

7. Topic or content directions — more detail is better

Your outline should provide the writer with any messaging or story points you definitely want covered. It could include the geographical region of your audience. Also, it should convey the publication and/or company’s preferred tone, POV and any keywords you want to include.

Meredith Hoffa gives specific no-go parameters that writers who specialize in women’s lifestyle content would not necessarily know the first time they wrote for her publication: “I tell them what things to avoid — things I know my brand hates, like the ‘we got you’ trope and the ‘moms, let’s stop judging other moms!’ trope,” she says.

She also places a lot of emphasis on distilling the theme/angle of the piece into a catchy headline.

“Headline idea: No to clickbait, but yes to an active header that grabs the reader. What makes someone want to click this article on social media or in one of our newsletters?

“So much about this type of content is in the packaging. If their piece can’t be summed up in a snappy headline, then it won’t work.”

8. Contact names and info

Many times in branded content, the writer will be expected to reach out to specific sources for quotes or full interviews. If you have those people in mind, include their names, roles and how to get in touch with them. Also include other parameters If applicable, for example: “Email to request an interview, and if you don’t hear back, follow up at the end of the week.”

Since the sources for brand stories can range from factory floor employees to the CEO, it’s crucial to support a freelancer by at least telling them how to get in touch with the sources, if not actually making the connections for them.

9. Due date

This one is self-explanatory.

10. Word count requirements

Give the writer a minimum and, if there is one, a maximum word count. Consider adding 100 words or so to your actual word count requirement. It’s easier to cut the fluff during editing than have to go back and ask for more detail or more straight-up meat to the piece.

11. Links to other relevant documents

If you hire writers often, you should create contributor guidelines and a company style guide . Make sure to include links to these documents in your brief/assignment.

Finally, if you have any reference URLs or favorite blog posts that you want to emulate, include links to those as well.

Great content doesn’t have to be a headache to produce

If you think content strategy is annoying to begin with, I promise it becomes exponentially more frustrating and time-consuming if you have to spend hours answering freelancer emails, requesting revisions, or reworking content that wasn’t on point. This wastes your time, stretches your budget thinner, and makes the creative freelancers (who may have excellent skills and all the good will in the world) grow insecure or resentful. And it’s exactly what you risk when you send a writer off with one sentence to describe what you want.

Stellar development begets stellar content. Empower your writer with the tools and information they need to produce the engaging, brand-elevating, helpful content your audience wants.

assignment content writer

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Understanding Assignments

What this handout is about.

The first step in any successful college writing venture is reading the assignment. While this sounds like a simple task, it can be a tough one. This handout will help you unravel your assignment and begin to craft an effective response. Much of the following advice will involve translating typical assignment terms and practices into meaningful clues to the type of writing your instructor expects. See our short video for more tips.

Basic beginnings

Regardless of the assignment, department, or instructor, adopting these two habits will serve you well :

  • Read the assignment carefully as soon as you receive it. Do not put this task off—reading the assignment at the beginning will save you time, stress, and problems later. An assignment can look pretty straightforward at first, particularly if the instructor has provided lots of information. That does not mean it will not take time and effort to complete; you may even have to learn a new skill to complete the assignment.
  • Ask the instructor about anything you do not understand. Do not hesitate to approach your instructor. Instructors would prefer to set you straight before you hand the paper in. That’s also when you will find their feedback most useful.

Assignment formats

Many assignments follow a basic format. Assignments often begin with an overview of the topic, include a central verb or verbs that describe the task, and offer some additional suggestions, questions, or prompts to get you started.

An Overview of Some Kind

The instructor might set the stage with some general discussion of the subject of the assignment, introduce the topic, or remind you of something pertinent that you have discussed in class. For example:

“Throughout history, gerbils have played a key role in politics,” or “In the last few weeks of class, we have focused on the evening wear of the housefly …”

The Task of the Assignment

Pay attention; this part tells you what to do when you write the paper. Look for the key verb or verbs in the sentence. Words like analyze, summarize, or compare direct you to think about your topic in a certain way. Also pay attention to words such as how, what, when, where, and why; these words guide your attention toward specific information. (See the section in this handout titled “Key Terms” for more information.)

“Analyze the effect that gerbils had on the Russian Revolution”, or “Suggest an interpretation of housefly undergarments that differs from Darwin’s.”

Additional Material to Think about

Here you will find some questions to use as springboards as you begin to think about the topic. Instructors usually include these questions as suggestions rather than requirements. Do not feel compelled to answer every question unless the instructor asks you to do so. Pay attention to the order of the questions. Sometimes they suggest the thinking process your instructor imagines you will need to follow to begin thinking about the topic.

“You may wish to consider the differing views held by Communist gerbils vs. Monarchist gerbils, or Can there be such a thing as ‘the housefly garment industry’ or is it just a home-based craft?”

These are the instructor’s comments about writing expectations:

“Be concise”, “Write effectively”, or “Argue furiously.”

Technical Details

These instructions usually indicate format rules or guidelines.

“Your paper must be typed in Palatino font on gray paper and must not exceed 600 pages. It is due on the anniversary of Mao Tse-tung’s death.”

The assignment’s parts may not appear in exactly this order, and each part may be very long or really short. Nonetheless, being aware of this standard pattern can help you understand what your instructor wants you to do.

Interpreting the assignment

Ask yourself a few basic questions as you read and jot down the answers on the assignment sheet:

Why did your instructor ask you to do this particular task?

Who is your audience.

  • What kind of evidence do you need to support your ideas?

What kind of writing style is acceptable?

  • What are the absolute rules of the paper?

Try to look at the question from the point of view of the instructor. Recognize that your instructor has a reason for giving you this assignment and for giving it to you at a particular point in the semester. In every assignment, the instructor has a challenge for you. This challenge could be anything from demonstrating an ability to think clearly to demonstrating an ability to use the library. See the assignment not as a vague suggestion of what to do but as an opportunity to show that you can handle the course material as directed. Paper assignments give you more than a topic to discuss—they ask you to do something with the topic. Keep reminding yourself of that. Be careful to avoid the other extreme as well: do not read more into the assignment than what is there.

Of course, your instructor has given you an assignment so that he or she will be able to assess your understanding of the course material and give you an appropriate grade. But there is more to it than that. Your instructor has tried to design a learning experience of some kind. Your instructor wants you to think about something in a particular way for a particular reason. If you read the course description at the beginning of your syllabus, review the assigned readings, and consider the assignment itself, you may begin to see the plan, purpose, or approach to the subject matter that your instructor has created for you. If you still aren’t sure of the assignment’s goals, try asking the instructor. For help with this, see our handout on getting feedback .

Given your instructor’s efforts, it helps to answer the question: What is my purpose in completing this assignment? Is it to gather research from a variety of outside sources and present a coherent picture? Is it to take material I have been learning in class and apply it to a new situation? Is it to prove a point one way or another? Key words from the assignment can help you figure this out. Look for key terms in the form of active verbs that tell you what to do.

Key Terms: Finding Those Active Verbs

Here are some common key words and definitions to help you think about assignment terms:

Information words Ask you to demonstrate what you know about the subject, such as who, what, when, where, how, and why.

  • define —give the subject’s meaning (according to someone or something). Sometimes you have to give more than one view on the subject’s meaning
  • describe —provide details about the subject by answering question words (such as who, what, when, where, how, and why); you might also give details related to the five senses (what you see, hear, feel, taste, and smell)
  • explain —give reasons why or examples of how something happened
  • illustrate —give descriptive examples of the subject and show how each is connected with the subject
  • summarize —briefly list the important ideas you learned about the subject
  • trace —outline how something has changed or developed from an earlier time to its current form
  • research —gather material from outside sources about the subject, often with the implication or requirement that you will analyze what you have found

Relation words Ask you to demonstrate how things are connected.

  • compare —show how two or more things are similar (and, sometimes, different)
  • contrast —show how two or more things are dissimilar
  • apply—use details that you’ve been given to demonstrate how an idea, theory, or concept works in a particular situation
  • cause —show how one event or series of events made something else happen
  • relate —show or describe the connections between things

Interpretation words Ask you to defend ideas of your own about the subject. Do not see these words as requesting opinion alone (unless the assignment specifically says so), but as requiring opinion that is supported by concrete evidence. Remember examples, principles, definitions, or concepts from class or research and use them in your interpretation.

  • assess —summarize your opinion of the subject and measure it against something
  • prove, justify —give reasons or examples to demonstrate how or why something is the truth
  • evaluate, respond —state your opinion of the subject as good, bad, or some combination of the two, with examples and reasons
  • support —give reasons or evidence for something you believe (be sure to state clearly what it is that you believe)
  • synthesize —put two or more things together that have not been put together in class or in your readings before; do not just summarize one and then the other and say that they are similar or different—you must provide a reason for putting them together that runs all the way through the paper
  • analyze —determine how individual parts create or relate to the whole, figure out how something works, what it might mean, or why it is important
  • argue —take a side and defend it with evidence against the other side

More Clues to Your Purpose As you read the assignment, think about what the teacher does in class:

  • What kinds of textbooks or coursepack did your instructor choose for the course—ones that provide background information, explain theories or perspectives, or argue a point of view?
  • In lecture, does your instructor ask your opinion, try to prove her point of view, or use keywords that show up again in the assignment?
  • What kinds of assignments are typical in this discipline? Social science classes often expect more research. Humanities classes thrive on interpretation and analysis.
  • How do the assignments, readings, and lectures work together in the course? Instructors spend time designing courses, sometimes even arguing with their peers about the most effective course materials. Figuring out the overall design to the course will help you understand what each assignment is meant to achieve.

Now, what about your reader? Most undergraduates think of their audience as the instructor. True, your instructor is a good person to keep in mind as you write. But for the purposes of a good paper, think of your audience as someone like your roommate: smart enough to understand a clear, logical argument, but not someone who already knows exactly what is going on in your particular paper. Remember, even if the instructor knows everything there is to know about your paper topic, he or she still has to read your paper and assess your understanding. In other words, teach the material to your reader.

Aiming a paper at your audience happens in two ways: you make decisions about the tone and the level of information you want to convey.

  • Tone means the “voice” of your paper. Should you be chatty, formal, or objective? Usually you will find some happy medium—you do not want to alienate your reader by sounding condescending or superior, but you do not want to, um, like, totally wig on the man, you know? Eschew ostentatious erudition: some students think the way to sound academic is to use big words. Be careful—you can sound ridiculous, especially if you use the wrong big words.
  • The level of information you use depends on who you think your audience is. If you imagine your audience as your instructor and she already knows everything you have to say, you may find yourself leaving out key information that can cause your argument to be unconvincing and illogical. But you do not have to explain every single word or issue. If you are telling your roommate what happened on your favorite science fiction TV show last night, you do not say, “First a dark-haired white man of average height, wearing a suit and carrying a flashlight, walked into the room. Then a purple alien with fifteen arms and at least three eyes turned around. Then the man smiled slightly. In the background, you could hear a clock ticking. The room was fairly dark and had at least two windows that I saw.” You also do not say, “This guy found some aliens. The end.” Find some balance of useful details that support your main point.

You’ll find a much more detailed discussion of these concepts in our handout on audience .

The Grim Truth

With a few exceptions (including some lab and ethnography reports), you are probably being asked to make an argument. You must convince your audience. It is easy to forget this aim when you are researching and writing; as you become involved in your subject matter, you may become enmeshed in the details and focus on learning or simply telling the information you have found. You need to do more than just repeat what you have read. Your writing should have a point, and you should be able to say it in a sentence. Sometimes instructors call this sentence a “thesis” or a “claim.”

So, if your instructor tells you to write about some aspect of oral hygiene, you do not want to just list: “First, you brush your teeth with a soft brush and some peanut butter. Then, you floss with unwaxed, bologna-flavored string. Finally, gargle with bourbon.” Instead, you could say, “Of all the oral cleaning methods, sandblasting removes the most plaque. Therefore it should be recommended by the American Dental Association.” Or, “From an aesthetic perspective, moldy teeth can be quite charming. However, their joys are short-lived.”

Convincing the reader of your argument is the goal of academic writing. It doesn’t have to say “argument” anywhere in the assignment for you to need one. Look at the assignment and think about what kind of argument you could make about it instead of just seeing it as a checklist of information you have to present. For help with understanding the role of argument in academic writing, see our handout on argument .

What kind of evidence do you need?

There are many kinds of evidence, and what type of evidence will work for your assignment can depend on several factors–the discipline, the parameters of the assignment, and your instructor’s preference. Should you use statistics? Historical examples? Do you need to conduct your own experiment? Can you rely on personal experience? See our handout on evidence for suggestions on how to use evidence appropriately.

Make sure you are clear about this part of the assignment, because your use of evidence will be crucial in writing a successful paper. You are not just learning how to argue; you are learning how to argue with specific types of materials and ideas. Ask your instructor what counts as acceptable evidence. You can also ask a librarian for help. No matter what kind of evidence you use, be sure to cite it correctly—see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial .

You cannot always tell from the assignment just what sort of writing style your instructor expects. The instructor may be really laid back in class but still expect you to sound formal in writing. Or the instructor may be fairly formal in class and ask you to write a reflection paper where you need to use “I” and speak from your own experience.

Try to avoid false associations of a particular field with a style (“art historians like wacky creativity,” or “political scientists are boring and just give facts”) and look instead to the types of readings you have been given in class. No one expects you to write like Plato—just use the readings as a guide for what is standard or preferable to your instructor. When in doubt, ask your instructor about the level of formality she or he expects.

No matter what field you are writing for or what facts you are including, if you do not write so that your reader can understand your main idea, you have wasted your time. So make clarity your main goal. For specific help with style, see our handout on style .

Technical details about the assignment

The technical information you are given in an assignment always seems like the easy part. This section can actually give you lots of little hints about approaching the task. Find out if elements such as page length and citation format (see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial ) are negotiable. Some professors do not have strong preferences as long as you are consistent and fully answer the assignment. Some professors are very specific and will deduct big points for deviations.

Usually, the page length tells you something important: The instructor thinks the size of the paper is appropriate to the assignment’s parameters. In plain English, your instructor is telling you how many pages it should take for you to answer the question as fully as you are expected to. So if an assignment is two pages long, you cannot pad your paper with examples or reword your main idea several times. Hit your one point early, defend it with the clearest example, and finish quickly. If an assignment is ten pages long, you can be more complex in your main points and examples—and if you can only produce five pages for that assignment, you need to see someone for help—as soon as possible.

Tricks that don’t work

Your instructors are not fooled when you:

  • spend more time on the cover page than the essay —graphics, cool binders, and cute titles are no replacement for a well-written paper.
  • use huge fonts, wide margins, or extra spacing to pad the page length —these tricks are immediately obvious to the eye. Most instructors use the same word processor you do. They know what’s possible. Such tactics are especially damning when the instructor has a stack of 60 papers to grade and yours is the only one that low-flying airplane pilots could read.
  • use a paper from another class that covered “sort of similar” material . Again, the instructor has a particular task for you to fulfill in the assignment that usually relates to course material and lectures. Your other paper may not cover this material, and turning in the same paper for more than one course may constitute an Honor Code violation . Ask the instructor—it can’t hurt.
  • get all wacky and “creative” before you answer the question . Showing that you are able to think beyond the boundaries of a simple assignment can be good, but you must do what the assignment calls for first. Again, check with your instructor. A humorous tone can be refreshing for someone grading a stack of papers, but it will not get you a good grade if you have not fulfilled the task.

Critical reading of assignments leads to skills in other types of reading and writing. If you get good at figuring out what the real goals of assignments are, you are going to be better at understanding the goals of all of your classes and fields of study.

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Assignment Editor Vs Content Writer

  • How To Hire
  • Best States
  • Best Cities
  • Job Outlook

The differences between Assignment Editors and Content Writers can be seen in a few details. Each job has different responsibilities and duties. While it typically takes 2-4 years to become an Assignment Editor, becoming a Content Writer takes usually requires 1-2 years. Additionally, Content Writer has a higher average salary of $58,918, compared to Assignment Editor pays an average of $48,582 annually.

The top three skills for an Assignment Editor include Twitter, Assignment Desk and Phone Calls. most important skills for a Content Writer are Digital Marketing, WordPress and Web Content.

Assignment editor vs content writer overview

What does an assignment editor do.

An assignment editor is responsible for handling and delegating tasks to news staff, identifying news sources, and developing accurate and efficient news articles for media and publishing companies. Assignment editors monitor situations for the public's awareness, requiring them to work at the office and conduct field investigations alternately. They also manage the scope and limitation of news coverage, finalizing scripts for television airings, and ensuring that all details are factual-based. An assignment editor should be highly communicative and organizational, as well as attentive, having the ability to finish newsworthy stories within strict deadlines.

What does a content writer do?

The job of content writers is to create the best possible written or visual content ranging from blog posts to press releases. They produce the content for various types of websites, including social networks, news aggregators, and e-commerce sites. The job of content writers is not limited to writing, but also ensuring that the content connects or is relevant to the website pages. They are expected to set the tone of the website and revise the content upon customers' or clients' requests. They are also responsible for assisting in the creation of style guides.

Assignment editor vs content writer salary

Assignment editors and content writers have different pay scales, as shown below.

Differences between assignment editor and content writer education

There are a few differences between an assignment editor and a content writer in terms of educational background:

Assignment editor vs content writer demographics

Here are the differences between assignment editors' and content writers' demographics:

Differences between assignment editor and content writer duties and responsibilities

  • Manage all audio/video material logging, digitizing, and archiving.
  • Manage incoming and outgoing video footage from CBS, ABC, NBC, CNN, and affiliate stations.
  • Manage the Facebook/Twitter social media pages for the station and interact with viewers for the purposes of research and community morale.
  • Manage and create newsletter archives for NASA: http: //
  • Experience includes inbound and outbound news gathering via phone, monitoring scanners, sending and receiving video through feeds and FTP.
  • Assign the ENG and search for new histories and planning.
  • Implement and manage Salesforce and Marketo for client to establish lead nurturing campaigns.
  • Maintain guest blogging strategy and policies to achieve a consistently diverse authorship and to grow readership.
  • Manage the editorial production of the pamphlets, brochures and graphic material to target worldwide audiences including china.
  • Manage proposal process from RFP (request for proposal) receipt to writing and editing various contributions to final RFP submission.
  • Collaborate with overseas team and manage documents using SharePoint to conceptualize and generate new marketing content.
  • Produce a wide array of literature ranging from poetry to short stories.

Assignment editor vs content writer skills

  • Twitter, 12%
  • Assignment Desk, 9%
  • Phone Calls, 6%
  • News Management, 5%
  • Local News, 5%
  • Government Agencies, 4%
  • Digital Marketing, 10%
  • WordPress, 9%
  • Web Content, 6%
  • Blog Posts, 6%
  • Digital Content, 3%
  • Content Marketing, 3%

Assignment Editor vs. Similar Jobs

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Assignment Editor Related Careers

  • Assistant Editor
  • Associate Editor
  • Content Editor
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  • Copy Editor
  • Editorial Internship
  • Managing Editor
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  • News Reporter
  • Photo Editor
  • Senior Editor
  • Sports Editor

Assignment Editor Related Jobs

  • Assistant Editor Employment Near Me
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  • Copy Editor Employment Near Me
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  • Journalist Employment Near Me
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  • News Reporter Employment Near Me
  • Photo Editor Employment Near Me
  • Reporter Employment Near Me
  • Senior Editor Employment Near Me
  • Sports Editor Employment Near Me

What Similar Roles Do

  • Assistant Editor Responsibilities
  • Associate Editor Responsibilities
  • Content Editor Responsibilities
  • Content Writer Responsibilities
  • Copy Editor Responsibilities
  • Editor Responsibilities
  • Editorial Internship Responsibilities
  • Journalist Responsibilities
  • Managing Editor Responsibilities
  • News Editor Responsibilities
  • News Reporter Responsibilities
  • Photo Editor Responsibilities
  • Reporter Responsibilities
  • Senior Editor Responsibilities
  • Staff Writer Responsibilities
  • Zippia Careers
  • Arts, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Industry
  • Assignment Editor
  • Assignment Editor vs Content Writer

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24 Content Writing Samples Examples & How to Create Yours

  • Content Writing
  • November 18, 2022

Can you show us some samples of your writing? If that’s something you keep hearing but cannot say a confident yes to, you’re at the right place. We’ll show you 24 examples of how others write and present their content writing samples and answer some of the most frequently asked questions.

So the next time a potential client wants to see your samples or HR requests them for your job application, you won’t have to worry about it anymore. You can just send your writing portfolio over with all of your best projects included.

Showcase your content writing samples with Copyfolio's portfolio templates

Looking for a quick and easy way to build your portfolio? Try Copyfolio and create a stunning website that’ll look good on every device. It’s free, no credit card required.

Read until the end, because we added free content writing sample templates for you!

  • 24 content writing sample examples

Why do you need to have content writing samples?

What kind of jobs do you need content writing samples for, types of writing pieces to include in your content writing samples, how long should your content writing samples be.

  • How should you format your content writing samples?
  • Free content writing sample presentation template

Content writing sample examples

1. Kevin Anderson

Content writing samples displayed on the writing portfolio website of Kevin Anderson.

Kevin created a page for his writing samples that's both visually appealing and informative. It shares details of the project while also allowing you to actually read the piece. He built his content writing portfolio using Copyfolio .

2. Shanice Perriatt

Social media content pieces showcased on a writing portfolio page.

Shanice displays her social media content samples with screenshots and mockups. Build a portfolio just like hers, try Copyfolio for free !

3. Astor George

Screenshots of Astor George's case study page, showcasing his content marketing samples.

Astor used Copyfolio's "Ink" color palette to let the images shine, and added CTA buttons under each sample's description for better conversions.

4. Allana Schwaaab

A page in Allana Scwaab's content writing portfolio, detailing one of her projects that she did for Hilton Supply Management.

Allana did two things to present her content work for Hilton Supply Management: she wrote a short summary of the project and she also included large images of the final piece. Allana featured these writing samples on her portfolio website, built with Copyfolio .

5. Margaret Reeb

Screenshots of a page in Margaret Reeb's portfolio, where she showcases some content writing samples, more specifically, her meditation blog posts.

Margaret created a case study page for all her meditation-themed blog posts. She starts with a short explanation of their background and her process, then introduces and links out to each of them. Margaret created it with Copyfolio .

6. Sera Ozkivanc

Content writing samples from a project page on Sera's portfolio website —work done for Loggle.

Sera created neat visuals of browsers and mockups to illustrate her writing samples on her project page about her work for Loggle. She created it using Copyfolio .

7. Hazel McLaughlin

A project page including writing samples from Hazel McLaughlin of work she did for the governor of Alabama.

Writing samples that Hazel did for the Governor of Alabama. She featured them on her portfolio website made with Copyfolio , including all important details as text next to images showing the content.

8. Julie Yuen

9. Halle Snavely

A screenshot of the content marketing samples that Halle Snavely has on her writing portfolio website.

Similar to Shanice, Halle features multiple samples on one page, including screenshots and summaries, linking out to the full pieces. She created her content sample page using Copyfolio and the "Letterpress" template .

10. Robin Catalano

screenshot of robin catalino's content writing sample

A magazine piece sample Robert wrote, with a little bit about the project background.

11. Tania Lewys-Lloyd

screenshot of a content writing samples page

Blog samples by Tania, with a link to the blog and some background information.

12. Caitlin Wright

screenshot of caitlin wright's content writing samples page

Caitlin follows the summary and a screenshot with a button linking to the piece published online.

13. Nidhi Pathak

screenshot of Nidhi Pathak's content writing samples page

Nidhi chose to add her content sample as a PDF with its preview and short summary.

14. Kelsey Ray

list of short clips displayed on Kelsey Ray's content writing samples page

Kelsey listed multiple samples categorized by industry —and included a case study for more information.

content writing case study on Kelsey Ray's writing portfolio page

She also wrote about the objectives and gave some additional information about the projects.

15. Angela Rodgers

Screenshot of the content writing samples by Angela Rodgers

Angela wrote short case studies for each of her samples, and displayed the finished results as screenshots.

16. Hannah Smith

hannah smith content writing sample

Hannah included the excerpts of her content writing samples on her site as blog posts, with a link to the full article.

17. Leah Presser

leah presser's content writing sample

Leah also added her writing samples as PDFs —each on their own page, with a short summary included.

18. Paul Maplesden

content writing samples by freelance writer paul maplesden

Paul added a screenshot with a title and short description to display his samples in his portfolio, followed by links to more of his blog posts.

19. Marijana Kay

Marijana Kay's content writing samples page showing the impact of her previous writing work

Marijana writes a comprehensive case study when adding her writing samples, giving you a good idea on how the content she writes performs.

20. Laura Howarth from left field.

display of content writing samples by left field.

Laura displays her work in a grid with thumbnail images and titles, linking out to the published content online.

21. Yvonne Reilly

content writing samples in the writing portfolio of yvonne reilly

Similarly, Yvonne also added each project as a card, linking out to the pieces on different websites.

22. 3rd.Life

Content writing sample displayed on the website

The content writing samples on the 3rd Life website pop up in lightbox windows, so you can take a better look and read the whole piece.

23. Julie Gabriel from

Content writing samples on Julie Gabriel's website,

Julie displays her writing samples with different CTAs depending on the format: some are linking to the published piece, while some offer a PDF download.

24. Shoaib Marfatiya

Shoaib's content writing samples

Okay, yes, these are great… But why do we need to have the content writing samples again? Isn’t it enough to just list all the previous clients and work experiences?

Not really.

Even if you worked with some big brands, it doesn’t mean that your next client or employer will like your writing style. Or that they’ll think you can adjust your tone of writing to their brand’s.

Getting to see multiple samples of your work in your writing portfolio , even if they’re not very long, will help them decide if you’re going to be a good fit or not. It’s kind of like trying an exotic new dish. You like how it sounds, but you’d still want to try it first before you can say that you actually do like it.

And that’s all the more true with clients working in complex industries. When it comes to highly technical topics, people like to see that you not only thoroughly understand it but can explain it in an interesting, easy-to-understand way.

First of all, you’ll need them if you’re a freelance writer, offering copywriting, or content writing services. Your prospective clients will want to check out your writing style before they hire you, that’s for sure.

But if you’re applying for an in-house or agency position that involves content writing, you will also be asked for it. It can be called a copywriter, content writer, SEO writer/specialist, or even a digital marketing position. So make sure you check the job description carefully and get your samples ready before you hit apply.

This portfolio took 30 minutes in Copyfolio. Build yours in a flash.

Now that you’re pretty sure you indeed need to collect your content writing samples, the next step is to decide what type of writing pieces you want to collect. If you’re an experienced writer, this will be a given.

But if you’re just getting started, choosing certain types of writing for your samples could help guide your projects later on. Because logically, for example, if you have a lot of podcast script samples, you’ll feel like a great candidate for the podcast writing gig. Just as a client would happily hire a writer to write for their blog if the said writer has loads of amazingly written article samples.

Blog posts and articles

One of the most common and popular types of content to write nowadays are blog posts and articles. As content marketing is becoming more well-known amongst companies, the need for writers who can write highly converting content is on the rise as well. So you’ll find that most content writers have blog posts or articles as samples in their writing portfolios.

Long-form webpage copy

Another type of written content all businesses need is copy for their website. With everyone trying to get their pages to rank on Google, if you can write SEO-optimized content for websites, you can get yourself ahead of the competition. Knowing at least the basics of SEO is a valuable skill for writers, so if you have it, don’t be afraid to show it off.

Content for social media

Do we even need to get into why businesses need to have an active social media presence? We all know that by now. But what many people often don’t think about is that writing content for social media is not something that just about anyone can do.

Yes, many social media platforms focus on the visuals - but without outstanding copy to go with it, even the best visuals will fail to convert. You need to know how to reflect on the consumers’ pain points and how to lead them to take the action you want them to take with the right CTAs.

So if you know the popular social media platforms and their requirements like the back of your hand –and can write content for them that will convert… Consider social media specific getting content writing samples and creating a social media portfolio .

Scripts for podcasts or videos

Blogs and websites have been around for ages, but it was in the last couple of years that the popularity of podcasts took off. So much so that now many podcasts are looking for writers to help out with their scripts, especially when they are starting a video podcast series . Since scripts for those need to be more versatile and well-thought-out. And the same goes for video content too.

It’s an exciting new genre, but also one that requires lots of time and effort. Podcasts tend to be quite long –and in most cases, you’ll have to do some research to be able to write a whole podcast script on a topic.

But if that’s something you’re interested in, add podcast or video script pieces to your writing samples to establish yourself as a promising candidate for these types of projects.

If you don’t mind ghostwriting (meaning that your name won’t be displayed as the author), writing eBooks for businesses that sell them is a great way to earn money as a writer. Similarly to podcasts, they’re lengthy and require lots of research –but the compensation usually matches the effort.

So if you’ve written eBooks –or want to get into writing them–, then samples or case studies to show your expertise will come in handy for your writing portfolio website .

Choose a template and fill it with your copy. It's that simple with Copyfolio.

The length of your samples will depend on a few things. Let’s start with the easiest.

If you’re adding a piece that was a previous project, the length is what it is. Although, for your portfolio, you can choose whether you want to showcase and publish the whole thing, or just an excerpt of it.

And that’s the second factor. Whether it’s a finished project or you’re just writing it now for your portfolio, you can always include just an excerpt of it. If it’s good enough that it shows your writing style, and your expertise in that specific type of writing, your sample doesn’t have to be thousands of words long.

Of course, if reading the whole piece is needed to assess your skills, write and publish it all. But showcasing only an excerpt can make reading it less overwhelming for the viewer. And as we all know, HR managers and potential clients often don’t have much time to review each content writing and copywriting portfolio . So making it easier for them by keeping the reading material shorter is a great idea.

How to format your content writing samples – a guide for freelancers and in-house content writers

This is another “it depends” kind of situation. Why?

Because if you’re applying for an in-house or agency position, the writing sample requirements might be very specific. They might ask you to send a certain number of samples that have specified length and format too. Or might even ask you to write something replying to a prompt or topic they gave you.

But if there are no such requirements, or you’re just putting your content writing portfolio together, you have more freedom in choosing the format. Our recommendation? A portfolio website , with each sample a separate project page.

Having your personal website with all of your content writing samples on there won’t only make you feel instantly more professional, but will also make it super easy for anyone to review your samples.

When each of your writing samples has its own project page, you have space to not only showcase the finished product but to also talk about how it came to be. Oftentimes the background information such as

  • what the initial brief or your task description was,
  • how you researched the topic and went around writing it up, and
  • the impact it made, the conversions it drove,

...are just as important – and this format will enable you to write about all that.

Free content writing sample presentation template s

To make it even easier for you, we put together two free content writing sample templates. These templates will show you the ideal structure that a content writing sample project page should have.

If you follow one of these templates, your projects will be easier to review, will give insights into and background information on the project, and will convert better.

content writing sample template for showing previous writing projects in an online writing portfolio

Create content writing sample pages based on this template easily with the help of prompts and guiding questions, and the super-fast page builder in Copyfolio — get started for free today, it's free, no credit card required!

This first template is for previous projects that are already published. Start out with your project title and follow up with a screenshot. It doesn’t have to show the whole piece, just that it exists and it’s out there.

People often simply link to the blogs and websites where their writing was published, but they forget one thing. It’s not guaranteed to stay there forever, unchanged. It happens that a company goes out of business, unpublishes some blog posts, or decides to change things in the copy you originally wrote. See how just linking to it becomes problematic?

But by providing a screenshot you can prove that it’s a real project that was published online.

Following the screenshot, write a few sentences about the project background. What was the task you were given? The brief or prompt you got? Who was the client you wrote for? Then, if you can, go into the creative process too.

In the end, show the final result. You can add large-enough images containing the content you wrote so that people can read it there - or even type it out. Additionally, you can link out to the live version of it online.

To maximize your conversions, always end with a clear CTA and your contact information. For example: “If you liked my writing and would like to work with me, email me at [email protected]

content writing sample template for beginner writers with no experience

This template is for you if you’re writing samples just to go in your portfolio. Because if you do that, you won’t be able to start out with a screenshot of your writing published online. You can still add a photo to make the whole page less overwhelming and easier on the eyes.

Next to the image, write a few sentences about its background and your process. Even if it’s a project you made up, you can still write about why you chose that topic and format, and how you got around to working on it.

For the final result, feel free to just type it out, or attach a screenshot of the document you wrote it in.

Collect your samples and add them to your portfolio with Copyfolio

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How to Write a Perfect Assignment: Step-By-Step Guide

14 Sep 2022

Quick Navigation

❓How to Structure an Assignment?

✍️Main Steps of Assignment Writing

  • 📖The research part
  • 🗒Planning your text
  • ✒️Writing major parts

📑Expert Tips for your Writing Assignment

✅Will I succeed with my assignments?


It is common for students of institutes and universities to get a task as a written assignment for a page or two. This academic type of work is widespread in the subjects of literature, history, or philosophy, but students of other specialties usually have to complete them too. For many, this becomes a real difficulty because not everyone has the talent for writing. In addition, even having decent knowledge in the field does not mean a well-executed written assignment.

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Writing essays

How to Structure an Assignment?

To cope with assignments, you should familiarize yourself with the tips on formatting and presenting assignments or any written paper, which are given below. It is worth paying attention to the content of the paper, making it structured and understandable so that ideas are not lost and thoughts do not refute each other.

If the topic is free or you can choose from the given list — be sure to choose the one you understand best. Especially if that could affect your semester score or scholarship. It is important to select an  engaging title that is contextualized within your topic. A topic that should captivate you or at least give you a general sense of what is needed there. It’s easier to dwell upon what interests you, so the process goes faster.

To construct an assignment structure, use outlines. These are pieces of text that relate to your topic. It can be ideas, quotes, all your thoughts, or disparate arguments. Type in everything that you think about. Separate thoughts scattered across the sheets of Word will help in the next step.

Then it is time to form the text. At this stage, you have to form a coherent story from separate pieces, where each new thought reinforces the previous one, and one idea smoothly flows into another.

Main Steps of Assignment Writing

These are steps to take to get a worthy paper. If you complete these step-by-step, your text will be among the most exemplary ones.

The research part

If the topic is unique and no one has written about it yet, look at materials close to this topic to gain thoughts about it. You should feel that you are ready to express your thoughts. Also, while reading, get acquainted with the format of the articles, study the details, collect material for your thoughts, and accumulate different points of view for your article. Be careful at this stage, as the process can help you develop your ideas. If you are already struggling here, pay for assignment to be done , and it will be processed in a split second via special services. These services are especially helpful when the deadline is near as they guarantee fast delivery of high-quality papers on any subject.

If you use Google to search for material for your assignment, you will, of course, find a lot of information very quickly. Still, the databases available on your library’s website will give you the clearest and most reliable facts that satisfy your teacher or professor. Be sure you copy the addresses of all the web pages you will use when composing your paper, so you don’t lose them. You can use them later in your bibliography if you add a bit of description! Select resources and extract quotes from them that you can use while working. At this stage, you may also create a  request for late assignment if you realize the paper requires a lot of effort and is time-consuming. This way, you’ll have a backup plan if something goes wrong.

Planning your text

Assemble a layout. It may be appropriate to use the structure of the paper of some outstanding scientists in your field and argue it in one of the parts. As the planning progresses, you can add suggestions that come to mind. If you use citations that require footnotes, and if you use single spacing throughout the paper and double spacing at the end, it will take you a very long time to make sure that all the citations are on the exact pages you specified! Add a reference list or bibliography. If you haven’t already done so, don’t put off writing an essay until the last day. It will be more difficult to do later as you will be stressed out because of time pressure.

Writing major parts

It happens that there is simply no mood or strength to get started and zero thoughts. In that case, postpone this process for 2-3 hours, and, perhaps, soon, you will be able to start with renewed vigor. Writing essays is a great (albeit controversial) way to improve your skills. This experience will not be forgotten. It will certainly come in handy and bring many benefits in the future. Do your best here because asking for an extension is not always possible, so you probably won’t have time to redo it later. And the quality of this part defines the success of the whole paper.

Writing the major part does not mean the matter is finished. To review the text, make sure that the ideas of the introduction and conclusion coincide because such a discrepancy is the first thing that will catch the reader’s eye and can spoil the impression. Add or remove anything from your intro to edit it to fit the entire paper. Also, check your spelling and grammar to ensure there are no typos or draft comments. Check the sources of your quotes so that your it is honest and does not violate any rules. And do not forget the formatting rules.

with the right tips and guidance, it can be easier than it looks. To make the process even more straightforward, students can also use an assignment service to get the job done. This way they can get professional assistance and make sure that their assignments are up to the mark. At PapersOwl, we provide a professional writing service where students can order custom-made assignments that meet their exact requirements.

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Expert Tips for your Writing Assignment

Want to write like a pro? Here’s what you should consider:

  • Save the document! Send the finished document by email to yourself so you have a backup copy in case your computer crashes.
  • Don’t wait until the last minute to complete a list of citations or a bibliography after the paper is finished. It will be much longer and more difficult, so add to them as you go.
  • If you find a lot of information on the topic of your search, then arrange it in a separate paragraph.
  • If possible, choose a topic that you know and are interested in.
  • Believe in yourself! If you set yourself up well and use your limited time wisely, you will be able to deliver the paper on time.
  • Do not copy information directly from the Internet without citing them.

Writing assignments is a tedious and time-consuming process. It requires a lot of research and hard work to produce a quality paper. However, if you are feeling overwhelmed or having difficulty understanding the concept, you may want to consider getting accounting homework help online . Professional experts can assist you in understanding how to complete your assignment effectively. offers expert help from highly qualified and experienced writers who can provide you with the homework help you need.

Will I succeed with my assignments?

Anyone can learn how to be good at writing: follow simple rules of creating the structure and be creative where it is appropriate. At one moment, you will need some additional study tools, study support, or solid study tips. And you can easily get help in writing assignments or any other work. This is especially useful since the strategy of learning how to write an assignment can take more time than a student has.

Therefore all students are happy that there is an option to  order your paper at a professional service to pass all the courses perfectly and sleep still at night. You can also find the sample of the assignment there to check if you are on the same page and if not — focus on your papers more diligently.

So, in the times of studies online, the desire and skill to research and write may be lost. Planning your assignment carefully and presenting arguments step-by-step is necessary to succeed with your homework. When going through your references, note the questions that appear and answer them, building your text. Create a cover page, proofread the whole text, and take care of formatting. Feel free to use these rules for passing your next assignments.

When it comes to writing an assignment, it can be overwhelming and stressful, but Papersowl is here to make it easier for you. With a range of helpful resources available, Papersowl can assist you in creating high-quality written work, regardless of whether you're starting from scratch or refining an existing draft. From conducting research to creating an outline, and from proofreading to formatting, the team at Papersowl has the expertise to guide you through the entire writing process and ensure that your assignment meets all the necessary requirements.

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David is one of those experienced content creators from the United Kingdom who has a high interest in social issues, culture, and entrepreneurship. He always says that reading, blogging, and staying aware of what happens in the world is what makes a person responsible. He likes to learn and share what he knows by making things inspiring and creative enough even for those students who dislike reading.

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Content writing involves creating relevant and informative content for a business to post online, in print, or to share with its stakeholders. The content should be written to achieve marketing strategies and promote the business and its products/services. Content writers can create a variety of content for a business such as blog posts, web pages, social media posts, email communications, and more.

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Let’s discuss it briefly!

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What is an AI Essay Writer?

An AI essay writer is a type of artificial intelligence that is specifically designed to write academic essays. These AI tools use advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques to analyze the topic and generate a well-written essay based on the given prompt.


AI essay writers are becoming increasingly popular among students and professionals as they can save time and effort while creating high-quality essays.

But it's important to remember that while AI essay writers can be helpful, they shouldn't be used as the only source of academic work because they can't think critically and analyze as well as a human writer can.

How Does Toolbaz AI Essay Writer Work?

This tool's primary goal is to help students with their writing assignments or essays by automatically generating them from scratch.

Simply put, it creates essays on your behalf. You can choose from a variety of topics, and the essay will be generated depending on your selection. It is completely customizable, so if you don't like the way it looks or sounds, just change it!

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  • Prepare academic assignments
  • Generate college essays
  • Quality content from scratch
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How AI Essay Writer Helps In Writing Articles?

The AI Essay Writer is a tool for creating the best and most creative essays possible. Our essay typer is integrated with artificial intelligence technology, which allows it to generate original and distinctive content for you.

This tool's AI technology is so powerful that it can even write an essay on your behalf! It will use its own algorithms to examine your text and other web texts before generating a very unique essay.

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The content created can be used for any purpose, including:

  • To provide an unique essay that will assist you with your homework or research assignment.
  • To compose an essay on a topic of your selection.
  • To create a blog post on any topic that interests you.

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What does essay generator AI allow you to do?

You can either write a new essay or edit an old one. You can also get assistance with essay writing. You may use an essay generator (AI) to learn how to write essays and enhance your English abilities.

It is very simple; just enter the text you desire to change and click the “write” button. The tool will do everything for you!

How do I use Toolbaz AI essay writer online?

You can use our essay generator to create a custom essay. Here's how to get started!

Just enter the topic in the input area like.

After entering the topic!

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How does Toolbaz help me write better essays?

Toolbaz's AI essay writer engine will provide you with a custom-written essay tailored to your individual needs.

The AI will analyze your prompt, automatically generate high-quality content, provide insights and editing tips to improve the quality of your writing, and suggest topics and ideas for further exploration. With Toolbaz on your side, you'll be able to write top-notch essays in just seconds.

What types of essays does Toolbaz write?

Are you tired of struggling to come up with ideas for your essays? Let Toolbaz take the burden off your shoulders!

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How can I improve my essay writing skills?

There are several ways you can improve your essay writing skills:

Practice writing regularly:

The more you write, the more comfortable you will become with the writing process and the better you will become at expressing your thoughts and ideas on paper.

Read widely:

Reading helps to expand your vocabulary and exposes you to different writing styles and techniques, which you can then incorporate into your own writing.

Get feedback:

Ask a friend, family member, or teacher to read your essays and provide constructive feedback.

Use writing tools:

Toolbaz is a highly effective writing tool that can help you improve your skills and generate top-quality essays.

Among the various writing resources available, it stands out for its comprehensive features and user-friendly interface.

Are the essays generated by Toolbaz original and free of plagiarism?

Yes, the essays generated by Toolbaz are original and free of plagiarism.

We understand the importance of submitting unique and original work, and our tool is designed specifically to assist students in generating original ideas and thoughts.

All of the essays generated by our tool are completely original and written from scratch, ensuring that they are completely free of plagiarism.

Popular Tools

assignment content writer

Assignment Editor

What is an assignment editor the driving force behind the hottest news stories.

assignment content writer

More people are glued to their phones and TV screens than ever before, fascinated by current events from around the world. Have you ever wondered who’s in charge of planning the content that makes it to the front of the line? A lot of that responsibility falls on the assignment editor, which is someone who spends their time collaborating with various sources to develop and plan reporting assignments.

What do the typical duties of an assignment editor consist of?

  • Communicate with inbound public reports
  • Assign writers, editors, journalists, and photographers to follow-up on leads
  • Listen to police scanners and monitor social media
  • Develop relationships with local law enforcement, fire departments, and government offices
  • Fact-check, edit, and design final presentations 

Assignment editors need to have a firm grasp of what the public wants to see and hear, so critical thinking skills are a must. This is a fast-paced position that’s not for the faint of heart. If you excel in a high-stress, deadline-driven environment, and are good at  building lasting relationships , then this might just be a fantastic career choice for you.

Thankfully, in this article, we’ll review everything you need to know to land a position as an assignment editor. We’ll first cover the typical requirements, including past experience, education, and training. Then, we’ll give an example of what a job post might look like. Lastly, we’ll examine salaries, work schedules, and work environment in detail.

Typical Requirements for Becoming an Assignment Editor

assignment content writer

Landing a position as an assignment editor takes time, passion, and commitment. The landscape is competitive, and employers will have plenty of candidates to choose from. Here’s what they typically look for:

  • Job Experience

Experience trumps all when it comes to obtaining a position as an assignment editor. Qualified candidates should have at least 2-years of experience working in print or broadcast journalism. Including copywriting, staff writing, editing, and research.  Completing an internship  in a similar line of work will also be helpful.

The ability to forge strong professional relationships is crucial – since you’ll be collaborating with different public and government entities. Because of this, be sure to describe your role in any group projects to show you’re a team player with the ability to lead.

  • Education Background

While experience is the driving force behind any successful candidate, having an education shows a certain level of commitment. Employers usually look for at least a 4-year degree in either communications, journalism, English, or broadcasting.

Having exceptional organizational skills is crucial for an assignment editor since you’ll be juggling numerous projects at once. Be sure to highlight any past projects that show your ability to prioritize and delegate.

  • Training and Certifications

There’s always someone more qualified, so you must find ways to stand out from the crowd. While there are no specific certifications required to land a position as an assignment editor, mentioning anything related will help.

As with most specialized positions, relevant training happens on the job. Because of this, previous experience working in a newsroom is seen as beneficial. A few outlets for gaining experience include internships, college newspapers, or entry-level positions at smaller TV or radio stations.

Sample Assignment Editor Job Description

XYZ News is seeking an energetic, creative, and aggressive assignment editor for a full-time position. Previous experience working in a newsroom is a must. Must be able to build contacts, generate ideas and stories, and be able to act decisively without hesitation. Problem-solving skills and the ability to overcome all obstacles is crucial for this fast-paced position.

Key responsibilities include:

  • Communicate effectively with producers and managers
  • Monitor police scanners for breaking news
  • Post breaking news stories to social media
  • Help coordinate all newscasts
  • Respond to inbound calls and check tip lines and emails
  • Follow breaking stories and track developments
  • Assist reporters, locate court documents, and research stories
  • Coordinate field crews
  • Contribute story ideas
  • Monitor social media and websites

Required experience, skills, and education include:

  • Minimum of 2-years of experience working in a newsroom
  • Experience using Twitter, Facebook, and other emerging social media platforms
  • Basic understanding of computers and word processors
  • General knowledge of national, local, and world news
  • Commitment to journalistic standards of accuracy and ethics
  • Work well under pressure and excel in a deadline-driven environment
  • 4-year degree with a major in journalism or broadcasting is also preferred

Assignment Editor Salary, Work Schedule, and Work Environment

assignment content writer

Glassdoor  puts the average base-pay for assignment editors at $52,107. This ranges from a low of about $35,000, to a high of $79,000. Though, if you happen to land a position in a larger newsroom, like The Washington Post, Fox News, or CNN, then you’re looking around $100,000 depending on previous experience. There are extremes on each side of the equation, but if you stick with it, you’ll move up quickly.

As they say, the news never sleeps. If you accept a position as an assignment editor, expect to put in some long hours. This usually includes weekends, evenings, and the occasional holiday. Since the day-to-day activities for most crew members are delegated by the assignment editor, expect to arrive earlier than most.

  • Environment

Pressure, pressure, and more pressure. As an assignment editor, you’ll be expected to perform well under pressure. This means juggling multiple deadlines at the same time, answering questions, responding to leads, and reviewing all stories before they go live. If this sounds like an environment you’d thrive in, then you’ll never have a dull moment.

Final Thoughts for Landing a Position as an Assignment Editor

If you’re driven to succeed, excel in a fast-paced setting and don’t mind a little pressure. Then the exciting world of print and broadcast news might be the perfect career decision. Be sure to build a contact list early-on in your career to make yourself a valuable asset. You can also join a professional association such as the  National Association of Broadcasters  to ensure you’re following any industry best practices.

Thanks for reading – and we wish you luck with landing your dream job as an assignment editor.

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Assignment Editor Cover Letter Example

An Assignment Editor is a professional tasked with the responsibility of editing at media companies such as newspaper agencies, television, and radio stations. He organizes the reporting assignments from selecting the idea to executing it. This can be in the form of news articles or feature stories that will be covered by reporters.

A well-crafted cover will give you an edge over other candidates will letter. Use our tips and sample to create an amazing Assignment Editor Cover Letter . If you are looking for something much simpler, use our easy-to-use cover letter builder to create the ideal cover letter.

Assignment Editor Cover Letter example

  • Cover Letters
  • Media & Journalism

What to Include in a Assignment Editor Cover Letter?

Roles and responsibilities.

The primary responsibilities of an Assignment Editor include being in contact with the public to receive news tips, assigning reporters to cover various stories, and managing different reporters based on their experience, skills, and areas of expertise.

  • Monitor multiple sources for possible news stories.
  • Develop and propose a daily news coverage plan.
  • Lead newsroom staff meetings to review possible stories and assignments.
  • Help choose which journalists, photographers, and other staff members are assigned to cover stories.
  • Stay on top of all stories to ensure they’re developing as planned and determine which ones are not coming together.

Education & Skills

Successful cover letters for Assignment Editor often includes the following skills and qualities:

  • Excellent research, writing, and proofreading skills.
  • Good people management skills.
  • Comfortable using writing software.
  • Accuracy and an eye for detail.
  • Good leadership and motivation skills.

Successful cover letters for Assignment Editor often mention the following qualification(s):

  • A bachelor’s degree in journalism along with proven work experience as a writer or an editor.

Assignment Editor Cover Letter Example (Text Version)

Dear Mr/Ms,

This is in regards to my job interest in the post of Assignment Editor at [XXX Company]. I believe that my experience and educational background have equipped me with the necessary skillset to make me a perfect fit for this role.

[XXX Media Company] has been the torchbearer in the news industry in being the first to bring the latest news and updates to its readers. Your company has set a benchmark for other news agencies when it comes to the authenticity of the news. It would be my dream come true to work in such an honorable media company as yours.

I have been working for 2 years as an Assignment Editor at YYY [Media Company]. My time at the company has given me working knowledge on how to manage a team and employ the right talent for the work.

At my current workplace I hold the following responsibilities:

  • Decide the story coverage for each day and assign it to reporters.
  • Coordinate daily events, press conferences, and daily broadcasts.
  • Oversee news coverage over major political events and work on the ground level by contacting protestors and congressmen.
  • Edit and proofread the news copy to ensure that it adheres to legal and ethical standards.
  • Write content for the Social Media pages and the official website.

My long-term career in the journalism industry has provided me with a great network of contacts. I have an intuitive knowledge of good ideas and topics that would make great stories. I will be thrilled to join your experienced team of editors and reporters and work closely with them on socially relevant stories.

I am looking forward to hearing from you to discuss my candidacy and other qualifications. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Yours Sincerely, [Your name]

Journalism is an industry that expects you to have strong networking and storytelling skills. A successful Assignment Editor Cover Letter should exhibit your experience and relevant skills. Refer to our Assignment Editor Resume Sample to create an impressive resume and strengthen your job application.


Customize Assignment Editor Cover Letter

Get hired faster with our free cover letter template designed to land you the perfect position.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The evolution of an assignment: how a Writing-to-Learn assignment's design shapes organic chemistry students’ elaborations on reaction mechanisms

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First published on 8th November 2023

Asking students to explain why phenomena occur at a molecular level is vital to increasing their understanding of chemistry concepts. One way to elicit students’ mechanistic reasoning and guide construction of knowledge is through Writing-to-Learn (WTL), which is a promising approach for students in organic chemistry courses. In the design of WTL assignments, rhetorical aspects provide an authentic context by designating a role, genre, and audience for students. This context can support students’ learning, but, if the rhetorical aspects misalign with the learning objectives of the assignment, they can hinder students’ ability to achieve these objectives. In this project, we designed a WTL assignment about a base-free Wittig reaction, which we implemented in an organic chemistry laboratory course. Here, we explore how changes in the rhetorical aspects of this assignment can influence the way students explain two different comparisons of reaction mechanisms. We consider how students use explicit and implicit properties and how the use of these features compares within the context of the reaction. Results indicate that, when the rhetorical aspects align with the learning objectives of the assignment, students provide more productive elaborations that use both explicit and implicit properties. This is supported by both the analysis of students’ writing and students’ feedback about the assignments.


Reasoning in organic chemistry.

It has been reported in several contexts that students can draw mechanistic arrows and describe how reaction mechanisms happen, but not explain the concepts behind the mechanistic arrows ( Graulich, 2015 ; Dood and Watts, 2022, 2023 ). While students are consistently tasked to draw and describe reaction mechanisms, they are not always required to explain them or provide underlying reasoning for how and why the reaction mechanisms happen. Research recommends using writing to support students in practicing their mechanistic reasoning and their causal reasoning and, thus, in constructing a deep understanding of organic chemistry reactions ( Dood and Watts, 2022, 2023 ; Finkenstaedt-Quinn et al. , 2023 ).

Researchers have examined a variety of tasks designed to engage students in aspects of reasoning. They designed and studied short-response writing tasks and constructed-response questions ( Cooper et al. , 2016 ; Crandell et al. , 2018 ; Dood et al. , 2018 ; Dood et al. , 2019 ; Crandell et al. , 2020 ; Dood et al. , 2020a, 2020b ; Yik et al. , 2021 ). For example, Cooper et al. (2016) designed a writing task on acid–base reactions where students drew the reaction mechanisms and were asked “how” and “why” the reaction mechanisms happen. Cooper et al. (2016) determined that students provided more elaborated, more detailed explanations when they asked students the questions separately, rather than jointly. Subsequent research has elicited students’ reasoning by using these types of constructed-response questions ( Crandell et al. , 2018 , Dood et al. , 2018 , Dood et al. , 2019 ; Crandell et al. , 2020 ; Dood et al. , 2020a, 2020b ; Yik et al. , 2021 ).

Additionally, researchers recommended using case-comparison questions ( Graulich and Schween, 2018 ; Caspari and Graulich, 2019 ; Graulich et al. , 2019 ; Graulich and Caspari, 2020 ; Rodemer et al. , 2020 ; Watts et al. , 2021 ). For example, Graulich et al. (2019) designed a writing task on substitution reactions where students selected two molecules with similar reactivities out of three molecules. While Graulich et al. (2019) did not analyse for mechanistic explanations and causal explanations, they did analyse for explicit properties and implicit properties, which compose causal explanations. In comparison to students who identified explicit properties, students who identified implicit properties tended to select the correct two molecules ( Graulich et al. , 2019 ). Prior and subsequent research has elicited students’ reasoning by using these case-comparison questions ( Graulich and Schween, 2018 ; Caspari and Graulich, 2019 ; Graulich and Caspari, 2020 ; Rodemer et al. , 2020 ; Watts et al. , 2021 ).

Alternatively, researchers have designed long-response writing assignments, and they have recommended using Writing-to-Learn (WTL) assignments ( Schmidt-Mccormack et al. , 2019 ; Watts et al. , 2020 ; Brandfonbrener et al. , 2021 ). Research has shown that WTL assignments support students’ understanding, specifically their understanding of acids and bases ( Schmidt-Mccormack et al. , 2019 ), their understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles ( Watts et al. , 2020 ), and their understanding of resonance structures ( Brandfonbrener et al. , 2021 ). Moreover, research has suggested that WTL assignments support students’ reasoning about reaction mechanisms ( Watts et al. , 2020 ). For example, Watts et al. (2020) designed a WTL assignment on acid–base reactions where students explained reaction mechanisms. While Watts et al. (2020) did not analyse for mechanistic explanations and causal explanations, they did analyse for entities, which compose mechanistic explanations, and properties, which compose causal explanations. All students identified entities, and most students identified properties ( Watts et al. , 2020 ). This finding suggests that subsequent research is required to explore how WTL assignments elicit students’ reasoning.

Writing-to-Learn assignments elicit student explanations of organic chemistry reactions

Inclusion of rhetorical aspects in a WTL assignment is well documented as a best practice ( Rivard, 1994 ; Bangert-Drowns et al. , 2004 ; Anderson et al. , 2015 ; Gere et al. , 2018, 2019 ; Finkenstaedt-Quinn et al. , 2021a, 2023 ). WTL assignments provide a specified audience because this elicits explanations based on assumptions students hold about the audience ( Hand et al. , 2004 ; Chen, 2013 ; Chen et al. , 2016 ). However, students are still cognizant of the instructor and may address the instructor in their writing as well as the specified audience. For example, Gere et al. (2018) found that students’ explanations changed if students addressed the audience more than the instructor, if students addressed the instructor more than the audience, or if the students balanced between audiences. Sometimes, the audience ( e.g. , a statistical consultant) and the instructor had shared knowledge, and this encouraged students’ explanations ( Gere et al. , 2018 ). Other times, the audience ( e.g. , students’ grandparents) and the instructor had unshared knowledge, and this constrained students’ explanations ( Gere et al. , 2018 ). Gupte et al. (2021) echoed this finding. These findings suggest that subsequent research is required to explore how WTL assignments’ rhetorical aspects shape students’ reasoning. Therefore, in response, this study explores not only how a WTL assignment elicits students’ reasoning but also how its rhetorical aspects shape students’ reasoning.

Succinctly, we designed the Wittig WTL assignment where students explained a traditional intermolecular Wittig reaction mechanism, explained a modified intramolecular Wittig reaction mechanism ( Schirmer et al. , 2015 ; Grandane et al. , 2019 ), and compared them. We redesigned the writing assignment, keeping its learning objective but changing its rhetorical aspects. Herein, we explore how students' writing changed when the writing assignment's rhetorical aspects changed.

Theoretical framework

Cognitively, this theory defines the writing process as a recursive, cyclic process ( Fig. 1 ) ( Emig, 1971, 1977 ; Hayes and Flower, 1980 ; Flower and Hayes, 1981, 1984 ). First, students plan. Second, students write, or transform internal representations of knowledge ( i.e. , thinking) into external representations of knowledge ( i.e. , writing). As delineated by this theory, students’ writing captures their thinking, and, specifically, organic chemistry students’ writing captures their reasoning, as demonstrated by Watts et al. (2020) . Third, students review, which moves them on or moves them into planning and writing. This theory informed the implementation of the Wittig WTL assignment, where students planned and wrote first drafts, provided and received peer reviews, and reviewed and wrote final drafts. Consequently, this theory informed our collection of students’ final drafts. Students decided to include – or not to include – concepts from their first drafts to their final drafts in the peer-review process. Watts et al. (2020) asserted that students’ final drafts “best captures the features they found important to include.” Therefore, students’ final drafts should capture more complete reasoning than their first drafts would.

Socially, this theory defines a writing assignment as a “rhetorical problem” with its learning objectives and its rhetorical aspects ( i.e. , genre, audience, and role) and a writing response as a “rhetorical solution” ( Fig. 1 ) ( Hayes and Flower, 1980 ; Flower and Hayes, 1981, 1984 ). Hayes (1996) proposed that students’ motivations mediate between the two. Accordingly, students plan, write, and review in response to the writing assignment's learning objectives ( e.g. , Should I include this concept?), the writing assignment's rhetorical aspects ( e.g. , Does my audience know this concept? Should I explain this concept?), and their motivations ( e.g. , Do I want to include this concept? Do I want to explain this concept?). This theory informed our design of the Wittig WTL assignment and our redesigns of its rhetorical aspects, intending to align problem and solution . Therefore, one assignment's rhetorical aspects should shape more complete reasoning than another assignment's rhetorical aspects would, if the assignment addresses the problem or if students’ motivation does.

Finally, this theory informed our assessment of the Wittig WTL assignment. We assessed an “effective” assignment as one that effectively aligned the problem , determined by the assignment's learning objective and rhetorical aspects, and the solution , demonstrated by students’ final drafts.

Analytical framework

Adopting the codes required exemplifying them in regard to the context, the base-free Wittig reaction. Graulich et al. (2019) presented two explicit codes: the explicit-descriptive code and the explicit-functional code. We exemplified the explicit-descriptive code, where students stated explicit structures ( e.g. , an ester group) and explicit properties ( e.g. , a negative charge) ( Table 1 ). Additionally, we exemplified the explicit-functional code, where students placed explicit structures and explicit properties within a context ( e.g. , the base-free Wittig reaction) and provided them with a function ( e.g. , acting as a base) ( Table 1 ). Graulich et al. (2019) also presented two implicit codes: the implicit-descriptive code and the implicit-functional code. We exemplified the implicit-descriptive code, where students stated implicit properties ( e.g. , resonance effects) ( Table 1 ). Additionally, we exemplified the implicit-functional code, where students placed implicit properties within a context ( e.g. , the base-free Wittig reaction) and provided them with a function ( e.g. , acting as a base) ( Table 1 ).

Applying the codes required differentiating explicit properties from implicit properties in regard to the content, or the depth of students’ statements. Acidity, basicity, and stability are implicit properties, and we found that students could state them as implicit properties. For example, a student stated, “The acidity is due to the ester group drawing electron density away from the carbon […].” Here, acidity was based on the implicit property of induction effects. We read acidity as an implicit property; therefore, we coded the statement as an implicit-descriptive elaboration. However, we found that students could state them as explicit properties. For example, a student stated, “The [hydrogens] contained in the double bond [of malate] are much more acidic than [the hydrogens] contained in the double bond of acrylate. ” Here, acidity was based on the explicit structure of hydrogen, neither based on the explicit property of charge nor based on the implicit properties of pKa, electronegativity, induction effects, or resonance effects. We read acidity as an explicit property; therefore, we coded the statement as an explicit-descriptive elaboration. We had to code the depth of students’ statements, although students could have had deeper knowledge and acidity is an implicit property.

Notably, Graulich et al. (2019) defined the codes by the depth of students’ statements, not by the correctness of them. Implicit statements do support correct statements ( Graulich et al. , 2019 ); however, an implicit statement can be either a correct or an incorrect statement, and it is not necessarily more correct than an explicit statement is. Therefore, through our analysis, we captured the elicitation of students’ elaborations in contrast to the correctness of their elaborations in order to assess our Wittig WTL assignment.

Research questions

2. How do second-semester organic chemistry students’ elaborations change when the Wittig WTL assignment's rhetorical aspects change?

Implementing the Wittig Writing-to-Learn assignment

Designing the wittig writing-to-learn assignment.

Specifically, a team of faculty (GVS), postdoctoral scholars ( e.g. , AJD), graduate research assistants ( e.g. , IZ), and undergraduate research assistants designed and redesigned five assignments. These changes were based on the Cognitive Process Theory of Writing ( Hayes and Flower, 1980 ; Flower and Hayes, 1981, 1984 ; Hayes, 1996 ), the WTL research ( Gupte et al. , 2021 ; Petterson et al. , 2021 ), and reflections from research ( i.e. , the data analysis and our memos) throughout design and from practice ( i.e. , our conversations with students and UTAs and UTAs’ notes) throughout implementation. Yearly, we have considered how vocational interests motivate students ( Stuckey et al. , 2013 ) and how students’ motivations elicit their responses ( Hayes, 1996 ). For example, in 2020, we discussed relevance, and we situated the assignment's rhetorical aspects in pre-health students’ vocational interests. Therefore, the 2020 Grant Proposal role was a synthetic chemist in a medicinal research group ( Table 2 ). However, Petterson et al. (2021) reported that students felt that the assignment's rhetorical aspects, including the Wittig WTL assignment's, were too situated in pre-health students’ interests. In 2021, we discussed agency, and changed the assignment's rhetorical aspects. Therefore, the 2021 Grant Proposal role was a synthetic chemist in either a medicinal research group or an ecological group. This shifted the focus from instructor-assumed relevancy to student-determined relevancy. We recognize that the assignment's role is a small choice, but we believe that an assignment's design is a series of small choices with a big effect on teaching, learning, and, importantly and specifically, eliciting students’ responses.

Designing the Wittig Writing-to-Learn survey

Data collection.

We collected final drafts, and, hereafter, “final drafts” and “responses” are synonymous. Although we collected all responses, we found that a random subset of the responses reached saturation. We considered saturation to be when we could present representative, descriptive results but also when we could pull significant conclusions from those results. Therefore, we collected the 2018 Essay responses ( n = 100; N = 471), the 2018 Feature Article responses ( n = 100, N = 215), the 2019 Cover Letter responses ( n = 100; N = 735), the 2020 Grant Proposal responses ( n = 100; N = 714), and the 2021 Grant Proposal responses ( n = 100; N = 788) via Canvas. We collected the 2018 surveys ( N = 147), the 2019 surveys ( N = 237), and the 2020 surveys ( N = 83) via Qualtrics. No survey was administered in 2021.

Data analysis

Our analysis produced two sets of five distributions of four codes. To determine if the distributions of the codes changed when the assignments changed, we conducted a Pearson's chi-square test for homogeneity ( McHugh, 2013 ) via StataSE 17.0. We infrequently applied the explicit-descriptive code, so we removed it, and we only evaluated the explicit-functional, implicit-descriptive, and implicit-functional codes. To determine which distributions of the codes changed, we separated the data by comparison ( i.e. , the comparison between Schemes 1 and 2 and the comparison between Schemes 2 and 3) and conducted Bonferroni pairwise comparisons for each pair of the assignments ( Haynes, 2013 ). We used an adjusted alpha value ( α = 0.005) to account for multiple comparisons ( Haynes, 2013 ).


An example of these revisions is the 2020 Grant Proposal, which required two pages and recommended that students “write organized and logical paragraphs” and “use clear and concise language.” With this assignment, we noticed that the students’ responses were longer than the assignment's two-page requirement, and UTAs repeatedly reported that the students’ responses were redundant, neither “organized and logical” nor “clear and concise.” We interpreted that the assignment's learning objective ( i.e. , “Students will explain the mechanism's changes by connecting its explicit structures to their implicit properties”) and its questions were misaligned. Thus, students were writing more than they should, oftentimes writing what we wanted them to but sometimes not. In 2021, we pared and revised the questions, where we provided broad directions ( e.g. , “ Compare the mechanistic steps in Scheme 2 to those in Scheme 1”), provided specific directions and questions ( e.g. , “What step allows for the formation of the ylide without the use of an external base?” and “Explain the structural features and electronic, chemical properties that are present or absent in this step”), and defined the vocabulary ( e.g. , “Structural features are atoms or functional groups”) (Appendix 1). Potentially, these transparent questions directed students’ responses from superfluous information to explicit and implicit elaborations.

Consequently, these revisions limit our claims. However, we revised how we asked the questions, not the focus of questions themselves or the assignment's learning objective. We found that students’ elaborations changed when the assignment's rhetorical aspects changed. Students’ surveys and prior research corroborated this influence ( Gupte et al. , 2021 ; Petterson et al. , 2021 ). While we cannot claim that the rhetorical aspects were the sole influence, we interpret that the rhetorical aspects were a meaningful influence and that appropriate rhetorical aspects in combination with transparent questions are likely a more meaningful influence.

Additionally, we acknowledge that we implemented this assignment in a single course at a single institution. This implementation affects the assignment's transferability and, consequently, our claims’ generalizability. We encourage instructors and researchers to implement the 2021 Grant Proposal; however, we encourage them to reflect on the assignment's learning objective, their course's learning objectives, and their institution's context and, accordingly, to alter the assignment.

Results and discussion

How students’ elaborations changed with changes in the assignment's rhetorical aspects.

As the assignments changed, explicit-functional elaborations decreased and implicit-functional elaborations increased by 2021 ( Fig. 3 ). A Pearson's chi-square test ( χ 2 (6) = 41.5; p = < 0.001) confirmed that the assignments had significantly different distributions, and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons ( Table 4 ) found that the 2018 Essay and the 2018 Feature Article had significantly different distributions. Both assignments had more explicit elaborations than implicit elaborations. However, the 2019 Cover Letter, the 2020 Grant Proposal, and the 2021 Grant Proposal had more implicit elaborations than explicit elaborations. Therefore, a cover letter or a grant proposal met the assignment's learning objective more than an essay or a feature article did for the comparison between Schemes 1 and 2 ( Fig. 2 ). Exemplifying this finding, we describe one of the first assignments (the 2018 Feature Article) and the final assignment (the 2021 Grant Proposal).

In one of the first assignments (the 2018 Feature Article), students’ elaborations were mainly explicit-functional elaborations ( Fig. 3 ). Demonstrating explicit-functional elaborations, students stated explicit structures, such as the hydrogen atom, the carbon–oxygen double bond, or the carbon–carbon double bond. For example, a student connected having a hydrogen atom to being an acid, “ This hydrogen is acidic due to the carbonyl group […].” Acidity was based on the hydrogen atom and the ester group, pulling on explicit structures. Also demonstrating explicit-functional elaborations, students stated explicit properties, such as the negatively-charged oxygen, the negatively-charged carbon, or the positively-charged phosphorus. For example, a different student connected having a negatively-charged carbon to being a base,

“The electrons on the O slide down, and the C–C double bond deprotonates the acidic H attached to the C with the P group […].

[Those] electrons fall into a C–P double bond […]. [In the] traditional mechanism, a separate base deprotonates […]. In this mechanism, the deprotonation occurs intramolecularly – hence why no base is needed.”

Basicity was based on the negatively-charged oxygen or the negatively-charged carbon, pulling on explicit properties. This focus on decoding explicit structures and explicit properties is a focus on explaining how the step happens, with explicit structures ( e.g. , “a base deprotonates” ) and explicit properties ( e.g. , “the electrons slide down” ) being actors in the step. Thus, these elaborations can be read as students practicing their mechanistic reasoning ( Russ et al. , 2008 ; Yan and Talanquer, 2015 ; Cooper et al. , 2016 ; Crandell et al. , 2018 ; Bodé et al. , 2019 ; Crandell et al. , 2020 ; Dood and Watts, 2022 ).

Contrastingly, in the last assignment (the 2021 Grant Proposal), students’ elaborations were mainly implicit-functional elaborations ( Fig. 3 ). Demonstrating implicit-functional elaborations, students stated implicit properties, such as induction effects or resonance effects. For example, a student connected having induction effects to being an acid,

“The structural differences [between] the base-free Wittig reaction [and] the Wittig reaction are the carbonyl groups and the alkene. [These] double bonds provide electron shifting […]. […] Specifically, the hydrogen is acidic – or is easier to deprotonate – because the carbonyl groups withdraw electron density from the [neutral] carbon…”

Acidity was based not only on the hydrogen atom and the ester group but also on induction effects, pulling on an implicit property. The same student continued and connected having resonance effects to being a base,

“…and because the negatively-charged carbon [will be] resonance-stabilized by the carbonyl groups […]. [Resonance and induction] confer the deprotonation by the alkene and the elimination of a strong, external base.”

Basicity was based on not only the negatively-charged oxygen and the negatively-charged carbon but also on resonance effects, pulling on an implicit property. This focus on decoding implicit properties is a focus on explaining why the step happens, with implicit properties ( e.g. , “easier to deprotonate” ) being descriptors of the step. Thus, these elaborations can be read as students practicing their causal reasoning ( Russ et al. , 2008 ; Yan and Talanquer, 2015 ; Cooper et al. , 2016 ; Crandell et al. , 2018 ; Bodé et al. , 2019 ; Crandell et al. , 2020 ; Dood and Watts, 2022 ).

Additionally, students compared a successful intramolecular Wittig reaction (Scheme 2) to an unsuccessful Wittig reaction (Scheme 3), in order to connect explicit structures to implicit properties ( Fig. 2 ). This comparison was a univariate comparison, and the prime comparison was the acid, either the maleate with two ester groups or the acrylate with one ester group. Analysing students’ responses, we captured explicit-descriptive, explicit-functional, implicit-descriptive, and implicit-functional elaborations, and Fig. 4 presents these elaborations for this second comparison.

As the assignments changed, implicit-functional elaborations stayed constant from 2018 to 2020, but they increased by 2021 ( Fig. 4 ). A Pearson's chi-square test ( χ 2 (6) = 31.5; p = <0.001) confirmed that the assignments had significantly different distributions, and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons ( Table 5 ) found that the 2021 Grant Proposal had the significantly different distribution. The 2021 Grant Proposal had the most implicit elaborations, although all assignments had more implicit elaborations than explicit elaborations. Therefore, an essay, a feature article, a cover letter, or a grant proposal meets the assignment's objective for the comparison between Schemes 2 and 3 ( Fig. 2 ). Exemplifying this finding, we describe the last assignment (the 2021 Grant Proposal).

In the last assignment (the 2021 Grant Proposal), students’ elaborations were mainly implicit-functional elaborations ( Fig. 4 ). Demonstrating implicit-functional elaborations, students stated implicit properties, such as induction effects or resonance effects. For example, a student connected having induction effects to being an acid,

“ [Scheme 3] lacks a second electron-withdrawing carbonyl group […]. […] The C–H bond in acrylate is stronger than the C–H bond in maleate [since] acrylate lacks the electron-withdrawing carbonyl that inductively weakens [maleate's] C–H bond. [This] makes [acrylate's] H less acidic, [and], if deprotonated, the structure would lack resonance stabilization. As this H cannot be intramolecularly deprotonated and no other bases [are] present, the acrylate cannot be turned into a ylide.” Acidity was based on: the ester group, starting with an explicit structure; induction effects, continuing with an implicit property; and bond strength, ending with another implicit property. Like the implicit-functional elaborations in the first comparison, these elaborations focus on decoding implicit properties ( e.g. , “ is stronger ”), focus on explaining why the step happens, and can be read as students practicing their causal reasoning ( Russ et al. , 2008 ; Yan and Talanquer, 2015 ; Cooper et al. , 2016 ; Crandell et al. , 2018 ; Bodé et al. , 2019 ; Crandell et al. , 2020 ; Dood and Watts, 2022 ). Unlike the implicit-functional elaborations in the first comparison, these elaborations start with an explicit structure, connect the explicit structure to an implicit property, and continue with a series of implicit properties ( e.g. , “ acrylate lacks the electron-withdrawing carbonyl that inductively weakens [maleate's] C–H bond ”) or “chain” ( Graulich et al. , 2019 ) and can be read as students practicing more chained, more elaborated causal reasoning.

Both comparisons are engaging students in decoding implicit properties; thus, both comparisons are engaging students in causal reasoning ( Russ et al. , 2008 ; Yan and Talanquer, 2015 ; Cooper et al. , 2016 ; Crandell et al. , 2018 ; Bodé et al. , 2019 ; Crandell et al. , 2020 ; Dood and Watts, 2022 ). However, the second comparison is engaging students in chaining implicit properties, or in more chained, more elaborated causal reasoning. This difference in the depth could be due to the difference in the comparison. The second comparison is a univariate comparison, where students decoded one explicit structure and constructed an elaboration from this explicit structure to multiple implicit properties. Contrastingly, the first comparison is a multivariate comparison, where students decoded multiple explicit structures and they constructed an elaboration from one of these explicit structures to one implicit property. Presumably, students weighed these explicit structures, after they decoded them and before they explained one of them. Accordingly, these elaborations are engaging students in multivariate reasoning ( Kraft et al. , 2010 ; Strickland et al. , 2010 ; Sevian and Talanquer, 2014 ; Weinrich and Talanquer, 2016 ; Bodé et al. , 2019 ; Moreira et al. , 2019 ; Deng and Flynn, 2020 ), in addition to their causal reasoning ( Russ et al. , 2008 ; Yan and Talanquer, 2015 ; Cooper et al. , 2016 ; Crandell et al. , 2018 ; Bodé et al. , 2019 ; Crandell et al. , 2020 ; Dood and Watts, 2022 ). Engaging in both may be limiting the depth. Research has shown that a case comparison elicits multivariate reasoning ( Caspari et al. , 2018 ; Caspari and Graulich, 2019 ; Graulich and Caspari, 2020 ; Watts et al. , 2021 ). Consequently, we assume that students’ multivariate reasoning is shaped by the question's case comparison, but we conjecture that their causal reasoning may be shaped by the assignment's rhetorical aspects.

Why elaborations changed according to how students perceived the assignment's rhetorical aspects

In one of the first assignments (the Feature Article), students’ comments suggested that the rhetorical aspects and the learning requirements were misaligned. Defining this theme, the specified audience frustrated students. Specifically, a student felt frustrated interpreting C&EN readers’ knowledge, “It was unclear – the [audience's] knowledge […] of organic chemistry. It was stated that they knew some but not all, and it was hard finding that in between point.” This student interpreted that readers have some knowledge. Similarly, a student felt frustrated translating C&EN readers’ knowledge, “The translation of organic chemistry was unclear. How was I supposed to talk about [organic chemistry to] someone who doesn't know a lot about [organic chemistry]?” This student interpreted that C&EN readers do not have any knowledge. Students interpreted that C&EN readers are not a scientific audience, without any or with some knowledge, although we intended that they would be a general scientific audience.

Also defining this theme, the specified audience appeared to constrain students’ elaborations. Specifically, a student focused on formatting the response, “ [The audience] was counterproductive and caused me to spend more time worrying about the formatting and writing style of the assignment instead of the content.” Similarly, a student focused on simplifying the response, “I [found] it difficult to describe chemistry terminology in a way that is simple but also accurate for the target audience.” Both students focused on writing the response, including style and length, rather than explaining the assignment's objective. Because students interpreted that C&EN readers are not a scientific audience, they assumed that vocabulary, phrases, and concepts were not shared and should be explained. However, the explanation must be “simplified” and explicit but also elaborated and implicit. Therefore, the audience poses an unsolvable rhetorical problem , choosing either fulfilling the assignment's rhetorical aspects or explaining the assignment's learning objective. This could account for the 2018 Feature Article not meeting the assignment's learning objective.

Contrastingly, in one of the final assignments (the Grant Proposal), students’ comments suggested that the rhetorical aspects and the learning requirements were aligned. Defining this theme, the audience satisfied students. For example, a student felt satisfied translating NIH readers’ knowledge, “I liked that [the genre] challenged me to explain this to [the audience] very clearly, but without […] the technical words that I want to use.” This student interpreted that reviewers have most knowledge. Students interpreted that NIH readers are a scientific audience, without all but with most knowledge, and we intended that they would be a specific scientific audience.

Also defining this theme, the specified audience appeared to encourage students’ elaborations. For example, a student focused on “working out” the reaction mechanisms, “[I]t is a fun challenge to write a highly technical essay. Working out the mechanism is very rewarding, as I feel like I have done something really difficult well.” This student focused on explaining the assignment's objective rather than on writing the response, including style and length. If students focused on writing the response, they focused on the length because they wanted to write more, not because they could not write more or did not know how much to write. For example, a student felt frustrated keeping to an assigned length, “A challenging part of the assignment was […] keeping my word [count] to a minimum.” Because students interpreted that NIH readers are a scientific audience, they assumed that most vocabulary, phrases, and concepts were shared and that the salient ones should be explained. Moreover, the explanation could be elaborated and implicit. Therefore, the audience poses a solvable rhetorical problem , balancing the assignment's rhetorical aspects and explaining the assignment's learning objective. This could account for the 2020 and 2021 Grant Proposals meeting the assignment's learning objective.

These findings show the influence of specifying an appropriate audience. We conjecture that students’ elaborations may be shaped by the assignment's audience, but we recognize that their elaborations may be truly shaped by their interpretations of the assignment's audience. Therefore, WTL assignments should not only specify an audience ( Gere et al. , 2019 ) but also detail an appropriate, transparent audience and describe the audience's level of knowledge or provide examples.

Additionally, we recognize that students’ elaborations may be shaped by their motivations. The Cognitive Process Theory of Writing ( Hayes and Flower, 1980 ; Flower and Hayes, 1981, 1984 ; Hayes, 1996 ) proposes that students not only write in response to the assignment's learning objectives ( e.g. , Should I include this concept?) and its rhetorical aspects ( e.g. , Does my audience know this concept? Should I explain this concept?) but also in response to their motivations ( e.g. , Do I want to include this concept? Do I want to explain this concept?). Students’ comments suggested that they were engaged. Defining this theme, students commented that the assignment “motivated [them],” the assignment “seemed meaningful,” or the assignment “seemed relevant.” Expanding on the assignment's relevance, a student connected the 2018 Feature Article to their laboratory course, “I like how [the assignment] incorporated what we were doing in the lab.” Similarly expanding on the assignment's relevance, a student connected the 2020 Grant Proposal to their lecture course, “I like that this assignment built upon [what] we had covered in lecture. The material was not totally unfamiliar, so I could actually attempt to explain it on my own.” Students found this assignment to be relevant, and studies corroborate that students find our assignments to be relevant ( Petterson et al. , 2021 ) and, because meaningful learning requires relevance ( Bretz, 2001 ), that they find them to be meaningful learning experiences ( Gupte et al. , 2021 ). Relatedly, because motivation requires relevance ( Stuckey et al. , 2013 ), students might find our assignments to be motivating experiences. These findings inform ours, as students’ motivations have been proposed to mediate between an assignment's rhetorical problem ( e.g. , the audience) and its rhetorical solution ( Hayes, 1996 ). Thus, we suspect that appropriate rhetorical aspects are those that motivate students in addition to – or in order to – encourage their elaborations.

Conclusion and implications

The assignments elicited students’ explicit and implicit elaborations. Mechanistic reasoning depends on explicit elaborations, or decoding explicit structures ( e.g. , electrons, atoms, and chemical bonds); similarly, causal reasoning depends on implicit elaborations, or decoding implicit properties ( e.g. , acidity, induction effects, or resonance effects) ( Russ et al. , 2008 ; Yan and Talanquer, 2015 ; Cooper et al. , 2016 ; Crandell et al. , 2018 ; Bodé et al. , 2019 ; Crandell et al. , 2020 ; Dood and Watts, 2022 ). Thus, these elaborations can be interpreted as students practicing their reasoning and demonstrating their reasoning to researchers or instructors. The 2018 Essay and the 2018 Feature Article did not elicit these implicit elaborations to the extent that the 2019 Cover Letter, the 2020 Grant Proposal, and the 2021 Grant Proposal did, and, thus, the latter assignments better met the learning objective. Consistent with Watts et al. 's (2020) findings, our findings suggest that WTL assignments can support the learning objective of reasoning, in addition to the learning objectives of conceptual understanding that have been documented previously ( Schmidt-Mccormack et al. , 2019 ; Watts et al. , 2020 ; Brandfonbrener et al. , 2021 ; Finkenstaedt-Quinn et al. , 2023 ).

Moreover, the assignments shaped students’ elaborations, moving from explicit elaborations to implicit elaborations. According to Flower and Hayes, the writing assignment is the “rhetorical problem,” and the writing response is the “rhetorical solution” ( Hayes and Flower, 1980 ; Flower and Hayes, 1981, 1984 ; Hayes, 1996 ) and an assignment's rhetorical aspects are one of the mediators between problem and solution ( Hayes and Flower, 1980 ; Flower and Hayes, 1981, 1984 ; Hayes, 1996 ). The 2018 Feature Article constrained students’ elaborations into explicit elaborations. Contextualizing this finding, students’ comments expressed that this assignment's audience presented a challenging and disengaging problem . Students interpreted that C&EN readers are not a scientific audience, although we intended that they would be a general scientific audience. They reported feeling frustrated, focusing on writing the response. Thus, the assignments’ rhetorical aspects and learning requirements were misaligned. Contrastingly, the 2020 and 2021 Grant Proposal assignments encouraged their elaborations into implicit elaborations. Contextualizing this finding, students' comments expressed that this assignment's audience presented a challenging but engaging problem . We intended that NIH reviewers would be a specific scientific audience, and students interpreted that they were. They reported feeling satisfied and capable, focusing on explaining the assignment's learning objective. Therefore, the assignments’ rhetorical aspects and learning requirements were aligned. These findings show how WTL assignments need to detail appropriate rhetorical aspects in order to encourage more implicit elaborations and, correspondingly, more complex reasoning.

Students’ motivations are also one of the mediators between problem and solution ( Hayes and Flower, 1980 ; Flower and Hayes, 1981, 1984 ; Hayes, 1996 ). Students’ comments expressed that all assignments “motivated them,” “seemed relevant,” and “seemed meaningful.” Studies corroborate that students find WTL assignments to be relevant ( Petterson et al. , 2021 ) and to be meaningful learning experiences ( Gupte et al. , 2021 ). Supporting these findings, we report how WTL assignments need relevant rhetorical aspects in order to encourage more implicit elaborations and, correspondingly, more complex reasoning.

Implications for research

Implications for instruction, author contributions, conflicts of interest, appendix 1: the 2021 grant proposal assignment, motivation and significance.

Benzoxepine analogs are important intermediates in the synthesis of therapeutic drugs. However, the isolation of benzoxepine analogs from natural sources is inefficient. Recently, German researchers synthesized benzoxepine analogs ( Fig. 7 ) using a base-free Wittig reaction ( Fig. 8 ). This reaction allows for the synthesis of therapeutic drugs on an industrial scale.


• write organized and logical paragraphs with headers;

• include figures that assist the reviewers in understanding complex information;

• use clear and concise language, striking a balance between organic jargon and oversimplifications.


1. What changes occur from the starting materials and the reagents to the products for the reaction in Scheme 2?

a. Describe the mechanistic steps.

b. Explain the structural features ( e.g. , atoms or functional groups) and the electronic, chemical properties ( e.g. , electronegativity, resonance, or induction) of the starting materials, reagents, and intermediates, and, moreover, explain their role ( e.g. , electrophile, nucleophile, acid, or base) or arrows in the mechanistic step.

c. Focus on the how and why as well as the what.

2. Compare the mechanistic steps in Scheme 2 to those in Scheme 1.

a. What step allows for the formation of the ylide without the use of an external base? (Note that the ylide is not shown in this scheme.)

b. Explain the structural features and electronic, chemical properties that are present or absent in this step.

3. Compare the mechanistic steps in Scheme 2 to those in Scheme 3.

a. Why does the reaction work with maleate but not work with acrylate?

You can and should include figures of schemes, structures, or mechanisms, if that supports your response. We suggest that you have the figure(s) in front of you — ready to color-code or mark-up in various ways — and that you use your visible thinking to guide your audience through your writing. Any images that you include in your response, including the figures in this prompt or those that you draw in ChemDraw or on paper, must have the original source cited using either ACS or APA format. Given your audience, your written response should suffice so that the written response is as representative and descriptive as the figures. You will be graded only on your written response .

Appendix 2: the 2021 peer review

• Read the response more slowly, keeping the rubric in mind.

• Highlight the pieces of text that let you directly address the rubric in your online responses.

• In your online responses, focus on higher-order concerns, like content and argument, rather than lower-order concerns, like grammar and spelling.

• Be very specific in your responses, referring to your peer's actual language, mentioning terms and concepts that are either present or missing, and following the directions in the rubric.

• Use respectful language, whether you are suggesting improvements to or praising your peer.

2. Does the author's comparison provide a description (the what ) as well as an explanation (the how and why ) of Scheme 1 occurring intermolecularly but Scheme 2 occurring intramolecularly? Comment on the structure and the electronic, chemical property that the author attributes as the reason.

3. Does the author's comparison provide a description as well as an explanation of Scheme 2 occurring but Scheme 3 not occurring? Comment on the structure and the electronic, chemical property that the author attributes as the reason.

Appendix 3: the 2021 grant proposal rubric


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