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Introduction to HTML

At its heart, HTML is a language made up of elements , which can be applied to pieces of text to give them different meaning in a document (Is it a paragraph? Is it a bulleted list? Is it part of a table?), structure a document into logical sections (Does it have a header? Three columns of content? A navigation menu?), and embed content such as images and videos into a page. This module will introduce the first two of these and introduce fundamental concepts and syntax you need to know to understand HTML.

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Before starting this module, you don't need any previous HTML knowledge, but you should have at least basic familiarity with using computers and using the web passively (i.e., just looking at it and consuming content). You should have a basic work environment set up (as detailed in Installing basic software ), and understand how to create and manage files (as detailed in Dealing with files ). Both are parts of our Getting started with the web complete beginner's module.

Note: If you are working on a computer/tablet/other device where you don't have the ability to create your own files, you could try out (most of) the code examples in an online coding program such as JSBin or Glitch .

This module contains the following articles, which will take you through all the basic theory of HTML and provide ample opportunity for you to test out some skills.

Covers the absolute basics of HTML, to get you started — we define elements, attributes, and other important terms, and show where they fit in the language. We also show how a typical HTML page is structured and how an HTML element is structured, and explain other important basic language features. Along the way, we'll play with some HTML to get you interested!

The head of an HTML document is the part that is not displayed in the web browser when the page is loaded. It contains information such as the page <title> , links to CSS (if you want to style your HTML content with CSS), links to custom favicons, and metadata (data about the HTML, such as who wrote it, and important keywords that describe the document).

One of HTML's main jobs is to give text meaning (also known as semantics ), so that the browser knows how to display it correctly. This article looks at how to use HTML to break up a block of text into a structure of headings and paragraphs, add emphasis/importance to words, create lists, and more.

Hyperlinks are really important — they are what makes the web a web. This article shows the syntax required to make a link and discusses best practices for links.

There are many other elements in HTML for formatting text that we didn't get to in the HTML text fundamentals article. The elements here are less well-known, but still useful to know about. In this article, you'll learn about marking up quotations, description lists, computer code and other related text, subscript and superscript, contact information, and more.

As well as defining individual parts of your page (such as "a paragraph" or "an image"), HTML is also used to define areas of your website (such as "the header", "the navigation menu", or "the main content column"). This article looks into how to plan a basic website structure and how to write the HTML to represent this structure.

Writing HTML is fine, but what if something goes wrong, and you can't work out where the error in the code is? This article will introduce you to some tools that can help.


The following assessments will test your understanding of the HTML basics covered in the guides above.

We all learn to write a letter sooner or later; it is also a useful example to test out text formatting skills. In this assessment, you'll be given a letter to mark up.

This assessment tests your ability to use HTML to structure a simple page of content, containing a header, a footer, a navigation menu, main content, and a sidebar.

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The Best Way to Learn HTML for Free (and Why You Should)

Small figures standing around books learning html

It isn’t always easy to bring your ideas to life.

You might have a perfect vision, but it’s challenging to share it with your developer. Ideas may get lost in translation, and your website might miss the mark.

Even worse, you might need edits at a moment’s notice with no time to go back to your developer before launching.

That’s why it’s so important to learn HTML . With the proper HTML knowledge and skills, you can proficiently build and edit a website to make your vision a reality.

This post will show you what you need to do to learn HTML and why it is vital to have it in your toolkit.

What Is HTML?

HTML stands for H yper T ext M arkup L anguage. It is the language used to display documents and various creations in a standard browser.

It’s used by businesses worldwide to power mobile apps, software, and websites — almost 92.8%  of all websites.

Learning HTML will open up countless opportunities for you and your business. You’ll be able to code websites and adjust scripts by understanding basic HTML.

At first, writing in HTML may seem complex. Take a look at the lines of HTML code written in this HTML editor:

A screenshot of an example HTML code.

It might not make sense to you right now, but once you take an HTML course, you’ll start to get it soon enough.

As you learn and understand the required structure of HTML, you’ll be able to recall HTML shortcuts in no time.

In the above example, you can see that the code is written for an HTML page, including a header, title, and body. The tags within the brackets begin to give the document structure, while the actual content can be added in between them.

Collectively, the tags and content are considered an element. The first step in understanding HTML is learning all the most commonly used tags and what they do.

For example, the <p> tag denotes a paragraph. Add <p> to start a new paragraph and then begin typing your content like this:

Understanding how different tags form elements is a critical step in learning HTML.

All opening tags will need a closing tag that matches. You can write closing tags with a backslash before the tag. For instance, to end a paragraph, you would include </p> after the content.

That is just an example of one tag. There are hundreds of other tags that can help you make more dynamic projects. The order and way you put tags together are how the structure and style of your webpage or asset will come to life.

Some of the most popular tags include:

  • <H1>  – first header text size
  • <b>  – bolding the text
  • <i>  – italicizing the text
  • <a href=> – adding a link to the document
  • <font size="+3">  – increasing the font to a specific size

Once you begin your study of HTML , these tags will become second nature to you. You’ll be able to recall exactly which one you need without having to look them up.

That is how programmers move so fast when writing code. They know the tags and how to fit them together to create the dynamic HTML-coded asset in their minds.

You might be thinking, “Couldn’t I just hire someone to code my website for me?” And while the answer is yes, there are still so many reasons you should learn HTML.

Let’s take a look at a few of the most important reasons why learning HTML is a valuable investment of your time.

Why You Should Learn HTML

To put it simply: HTML is the foundation for most of the sites you interact with every day. Even this very webpage is an HTML document.

It is so prevalent across the web that it makes sense for you to know, at least, the very basics of the HTML structure. You never know when it may come in handy.

Knowing it will help you become an even more savvy business person, marketer, product developer, and designer.

There are so many things you can do when you understand HTML. A solid foundation of HTML will set you apart from other founders, employees, and competitors from creating to editing.

By understanding basic HTML, you’ll be able to:

  • Build custom sites that you code yourself
  • Host assets on sites
  • Inspect sites and know how they are built
  • Code other assets, including basic software, apps, and more
  • Administer site edits without the need for a developer

Deciding to learn HTML can even pay off in the long run as HTML’s usage continues to grow.

For example, take a look at this graph to see how HTML usage has increased over the years, while XHTML, an older markup language, has decreased:

HTML and XHTML language usage chart

With a solid understanding of HTML , you can position yourself as a competitive candidate for almost any position. You can use these skills to improve your business if you’re an entrepreneur yourself.

Who Needs To Learn HTML?

If you’ve found yourself on this page, you’re likely an excellent candidate to learn HTML— and also someone who will benefit from it.

Before you get hesitant, know that your age and skill level do not matter. Everyone from the founder to the intern will benefit from learning HTML.

Not many people have experience with HTML, so it’s okay to be starting from scratch. Embrace the excitement of learning something new and let your curiosity soar.

If you know HTML, a new world opens up to you. You can bring your ideas to life by creating responsive websites, applications, and more.

HTML will help people in a variety of job functions:

  • Marketers  – to know how to make changes to a website
  • Product Development  – to code interactive renderings of a product
  • Customer Service  – to aid in the lookup of orders and code custom messages
  • Designers  – to host their creations on the web and understand how they will be portrayed
  • Salesperson – to automate prospect data filters, initiate cold emails, etc.
  • Founders – to make edits to their product or site and share their vision for HTML-enriched assets in a more concrete way

As you can see, there are many benefits associated with learning HTML, and the knowledge can impact multiple different business units.

Are you looking to change your day-to-day work? Consider learning HTML as a new skill that you can offer your company.

There are plenty of jobs that you can get when you understand HTML.

What Jobs Can You Get by Learning HTML?

You can make yourself uniquely valuable to almost any organization by learning HTML.

Let’s face it: having someone on staff who can put out fires on your website is always a need for any organization.

You won’t become a software developer overnight, but learning HTML will put you on the right path to become one.

HTML coding knowledge is a specialized skill that is in demand by employers all around the world. A software developer is one of the most common jobs that will use HTML.

The need for software developers has constantly grown over the past few years. It is estimated that there will be 28.7 million software developers needed by the year 2024:

A chart showing the growing need for software developers

There are so many different software developers that you can become if you learn HTML. With an HTML skillset, you can get the following jobs:

  • Frontend Developer  – codes the part of the website that the user interacts with
  • Backend Developer – codes the content management system (CMS) that the content manager inputs assets into so they appear on the frontend
  • Full Stack Developer – codes both the frontend and the backend of the website

Not interested in being a web developer? Don’t worry. There are plenty of other jobs that will benefit from your HTML knowledge.

HTML knowledge will make you an all-around more marketable job prospect. You’ll naturally find different ways to use your skills in various departments at your company.

Even just a light foundational knowledge of HTML can be an asset to any company. You’ll know what people are talking about and how to explain technical ideas to team members.

Marketing, business intelligence, and product development all can benefit from HTML. Here are some of the jobs you can get within each of those disciplines:

  • Email Marketing Manager – you can create HTML-enriched emails that are more visually engaging for the end-recipient
  • Marketing Operations Manager – HTML is often needed to add integrations to ensure the secure passing of customer data
  • Data Science/SQL Administrator – you can run HTML scripts to synthesize large amounts of data and models
  • Business Intelligence Manager – you can use HTML modules to unearth trends and insights in your customer data
  • Product Manager – you can use HTML to build, test, and code new products

If these jobs sound interesting, you should consider taking the time to learn HTML. But make no mistake: learning HTML can be a challenging task.

It might not be something that you understand right away. Instead, you might have to work at it to ensure you know every component of the new language you’re learning.

But just exactly how hard is it to develop a decent understanding of HTML? Let’s take a look and see what new students should expect.

How Hard Is It to Learn HTML?

Learning HTML will take practice, practice, and some more practice, just like any new skill.

Your approach to HTML should be like your approach to learning a new language. Start with the understanding that you are beginning with no prior knowledge. It can be humbling for even the most experienced workers.

However, once you realize that you don’t know anything about this new language, you can begin to dive in and discover what it is really about.

As you learn, HTML will become more apparent to you, and you can continue to chip away at each lesson which will compound on one another.

Soon, you’ll be able to put together complex elements and make visually-stunning HTML pages and applications.

How Long Does It Take to Learn HTML?

The process can take a while. If it were easy, everyone would understand HTML.

It is truly a specialized skill that you need to take the time to learn to ensure you comprehend everything slowly.

There are abbreviated courses that can teach you the basics of HTML in just a few days or a month. However, you won’t be a software developer overnight.

A thorough understanding of HTML can take months or years to know everything you need to know about it.

Wondering how to get started? Let’s take a look at the best way to learn HTML.

The Best Way to Learn HTML

The best way to learn HTML is with guided practice. It can be in a boot camp (in-person or online) or with guided modules.

A module provides a mix of video instruction, lectures, and guided practice. Some even have a test that you take at the end of each lesson.

Modules are practical because they enable students to learn at their own pace and take a hands-on approach to the lesson.

Here is an example of a module in action:

With HTML modules, you can self-check your work to ensure you are on the right track.

Ideally, you’d log into a module, learn a specific lesson about HTML, and then do a practice assignment to test your newly developed skills.

The lessons should build on each other over time.

You want to be sure that the medium you’re learning from offers application questions to test your skills along the way.

It’ll help you understand the concepts and language that you’re learning.

Now that you know how and why you should learn HTML , let’s take a look at some of the best HTML programs that you can use for free.

How to Learn HTML for Free

The most critical first step in your HTML education journey is selecting the right program that works for you.

There are so many different programs on the market. You should find the one that fits your learning style and commit to it.

Below, we’ve outlined some of the best free HTML resources you can use in your study.

The Codeacademy homepage

Codecademy has numerous free programs to provide you with the technical skills you need. Over 50 million students have used Codecademy to learn basic HTML and coding.

The company believes it has “perfected” how students learn to code. The program involves three distinct pillars: learn by doing, get instant feedback, and put your learning into practice. These will shape how you discover HTML with a hands-on, guided approach.

The company even offers forums, chats, chapters, and events to get added assistance during your educational journey. You can chat in real-time through their interface or post a question on the online forum.

If you meet like-minded people virtually, you can even get acquainted with them at a Codecademy-sanctioned event. By pairing community with hands-on learning, Codecademy sets itself apart from the others.


The Learn-HTML.org homepage

Learn-HTML.org  is a reliable source for everything you need to know about HTML. There is plenty to dive into on Learn-HTML.org, a free online module course that will take you step-by-step into the world of coding.

The site offers tutorials for HTML beginners that show them how to build HTML and CSS sites from scratch. The tutorials start with the basics and become more intense and complex as the lessons continue.

Lessons include everything ranging from essential elements, links, images, buttons, navigation bars, forms, video, responsive web design, app cache, local storage, drag-and-drop, and more.

This website is an excellent resource if you need additional help on a specific element on your site. You can easily find the tutorial and get valuable information for that particular widget you want to build.

General Assembly Dash

The General Assembly Dash homepage

General Assembly Dash is a popular site to begin to learn the basics of HTML. This free online course leverages projects to help you understand HTML concepts.

The program is excellent for beginners who want a foundational overview of HTML or intermediates who need a refresher course.

Within the same course, you’ll learn HTML5, CSS3, and Javascript as well. It’ll enable you to make stunning websites with multiple layouts and user events.

You can continue your education beyond this introductory course with General Assembly. The company offers a wide array of educational classes and resources to get more granular with HTML and other related topics of interest.

MIT OpenCourseware

The MIT OpenCourseware homepage

MIT offers open courseware classes to enterprising students that want to learn from the leading technical university in the country. These courses are designed by notable faculty and students who contribute to the content online.

The format of these courses is similar to miniature online college courses. You’ll be able to watch video lectures, view lecture notes, complete assignments and projects, review transcripts, and take an exam to test your skills.

Once completed, you can review the solutions and see how you performed. It’s an excellent resource to complement your HTML studies. Like the content taught in Universities and paid courses, the content is made free for students.

What You Should Learn With HTML

Once you learn HTML, your web development education doesn’t stop. There is plenty more to learn to enhance your HTML knowledge and make it more useful.

Two other languages that you should also learn include CSS and Javascript .

CSS (or cascading sliding sheets) is a programming language that focuses more on your document’s style rather than its bare structure, as HTML does.

Together, knowledge of CSS and HTML can make you a skilled developer.

Javascript is another programming language you should learn to further your skills. It’s a programming language that enables you to make dynamic content. You can animate images or make different multimedia elements fly across the screen.

Javascript will make any website more engaging for the end-user and potentially increase their time on your site.

HTML is a crucial addition to your web toolkit, and learning it is easy (and free! 😄) with help from this guide ⬇️ Click to Tweet

Learning HTML can feel like an undertaking. You need to understand the basics of what you’re trying to accomplish and find the right program that meets your needs.

Often, it can feel like you’re learning an entirely new language. That’s why it is so critical to take your time to make the proper investment in the right program.

Thankfully, many free options on the market can help make you into an HTML professional through lessons, tutorials, and guided modules. No matter which you choose, you’ll be on your way to unlocking the secrets of HTML in no time.

Done with learning HTML? It’s just the beginning of your web development journey. Progress further by reading our post on the best programming languages to learn . 

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Salman Ravoof

Salman Ravoof is a self-taught web developer, writer, creator, and a huge admirer of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). Besides tech, he's excited by science, philosophy, photography, arts, cats, and food. Learn more about him on his website , and connect with Salman on Twitter .

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HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is a language used for creating webpages which is the fundamental building block of the Web.

One thing to remember about HTML is that it is a markup language with no programming constructs. Instead, the language provides us with a structure to build web pages.

Using HTML, we can define web page elements such as paragraphs, headings, links, and images. Our HTML tutorials will teach you everything you need to know about HTML5 (modern HTML) step-by-step.

  • Introduction

HTML Basics

  • Inline Elements
  • Head Elements

Semantic HTML

  • HTML, CSS & JS
  • Graphics & Media
  • Why learn HTML?

How to learn HTML?

Html introduction.

  • What is HTML?
  • Web Design Basics
  • HTML Paragraphs
  • HTML Headings
  • HTML Comments
  • HTML Unordered List
  • HTML Ordered List
  • HTML Description List
  • HTML Line Break
  • HTML Pre Tag
  • HTML Horizontal Line

HTML Inline

  • HTML Block and Inline Elements
  • HTML Images
  • HTML Italic
  • HTML Superscript and Subscript
  • HTML Formatting
  • HTML Meta Elements
  • HTML Favicon
  • HTML Form Elements
  • HTML Form Action
  • HTML Semantic HTML
  • HTML div Tag
  • HTML aside Tag
  • HTML section Tag
  • HTML footer Tag
  • HTML main Tag
  • HTML figure and figcaption
  • HTML Accessibility

HTML, CSS & JavaScript

  • HTML Layout
  • HTML Responsive Web Design
  • HTML and JavaScript

HTML Graphics & Media

  • HTML Canvas

HTML Miscellaneous

  • HTML Iframes
  • HTML Entities
  • HTML Quotations
  • HTML File Paths
  • HTML Emojis
  • HTML Symbols
  • HTML is the standard markup language for creating the structure of web pages.
  • We can display web page content like paragraphs, lists, images, and links in a structured way using HTML.
  • We can only define the structure of a website using HTML. For appearance (color, layout, design), we use CSS. Similarly, JavaScript is used for adding functionality to a web page.
  • HTML5 is the latest and major HTML version.

Why Learn HTML?

  • HTML is the backbone of all websites; we can use it to create the structure and layout of a webpage. In addition, HTML will allow you to design your own websites and edit existing ones.
  • It is a fundamental skill for web development and often a necessary step before learning other languages like CSS and JavaScript. Plus, it's a well-established language with tons of resources available for learning and troubleshooting.
  • With HTML, you can better optimize your website's SEO and improve your marketing.
  • HTML is easy to learn and use, making it a perfect choice for beginners.
  • If you're looking for career opportunities, HTML can open doors in web development, web design, front-end development, and user experience design.
  • Programiz HTML Tutorials - Learn everything you need to know about HTML5 step-by-step.
  • Mozilla Documentation - Learn modern HTML in-depth (can be a little hard to follow).
  • FreeCodeCamp HTML Course - Learn HTML interactively for FREE.

HTML Tutorial

HTML is the main markup language for describing the structure of web pages.

HTML Illustration

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. HTML is the basic building block of World Wide Web.

Hypertext is text displayed on a computer or other electronic device with references to other text that the user can immediately access, usually by a mouse click or key press.

Apart from text, hypertext may contain tables, lists, forms, images, and other presentational elements. It is an easy-to-use and flexible format to share information over the Internet.

Markup languages use sets of markup tags to characterize text elements within a document, which gives instructions to the web browsers on how the document should appear.

HTML was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990. He is also known as the father of the web. In 1996, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) became the authority to maintain the HTML specifications. HTML also became an international standard ( ISO ) in 2000. HTML5 is the latest version of HTML. HTML5 provides a faster and more robust approach to web development.

Tip: Our HTML tutorial will help you to learn the fundamentals of the latest HTML5 language, from the basic to advanced topics step-by-step. If you're a beginner, start with the basic section and gradually move forward by learning a little bit every day.

What You Can Do with HTML

There are lot more things you can do with HTML.

  • You can publish documents online with text, images, lists, tables, etc.
  • You can access web resources such as images, videos or other HTML document via hyperlinks.
  • You can create forms to collect user inputs like name, e-mail address, comments, etc.
  • You can include images, videos, sound clips, flash movies, applications and other HTML documents directly inside an HTML document.
  • You can create offline version of your website that work without internet.
  • You can store data in the user's web browser and access later on.
  • You can find the current location of your website's visitor.

The list does not end here, there are many other interesting things that you can do with HTML. You will learn about all of them in detail in upcoming chapters.

Note: HTML as described earlier is a markup language not a programming language, like Java, Ruby, PHP, etc. You need a web browser to view the HTML pages. The web browsers do not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the web pages.

What This Tutorial Covers

This HTML tutorial series covers all the fundamentals of HTML, including the ideas of elements and attributes, ways of formatting the text using HTML tags, methods of adding the style information to the document, techniques of inserting images and tables, processes of creating lists and forms, as well as methods of including other HTML documents inside the current document, and so on.

Once you're familiar with the basics, you'll move on to next level that explains the concept of doctype, methods for creating web page layouts, the importance of adding meta information to web pages, ways of adding scripts, techniques for showing special characters, the anatomy of a URL, and more.

Finally, you'll explore some advanced features introduced in HTML5 such as new input types, drawing graphics on the webpage, including audios and videos in the document, storing data on client-side using web storage, caching files, performing background work with web worker, as well as getting user's geographical coordinates, creating drag and drop application, and so on.

Tip: Every chapter in this tutorial contains lots of real-world examples that you can try and test using an online editor. These examples will help you to better understand the concept or topic. It also contains smart workarounds as well as useful tips and important notes.

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Learn HTML Basics for Beginners in Just 15 Minutes

If you want to build a website, the first language that you need to learn is HTML.

In this article, we are going to go through the basics of HTML. At the end, we are going to build a basic website using only HTML.

Here's a video you can watch if you want to supplement this article:

What Is HTML?

HTML, which stands for Hypertext Markup Language, is a pretty simple language. It consists of different elements which we use to structure a web page.


What Are HTML Elements?


The element usually starts with an opening tag, which consists of the name of the element. It's wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets. The opening tag indicates where the element begins.

Similar to the opening tag, the closing tag is also wrapped in opening and closing angle brackets. But it also includes a forward slash before the element's name.

Everything inside the opening and closing tags is the content.

But not all elements follow this pattern. We call those that don't empty elements. They only consist of a single tag or an opening tag that cannot have any content. These elements are typically used to insert or embed something in the document.

For example, the <img> element is used to embed an image file, or the <input> element is used to insert an input onto the page.

In the example above, the <img> element only consists of one tag that does not have any content. This element is used to insert an image file from Unsplash in the document.

How to Nest HTML Elements

Elements can be placed inside other elements. This is called Nesting. In the example above, inside the <div> element we have an <h4> element and an <ul> or unordered list element. And Similarly inside the <ul> element, there are 3 <li> or list item elements.

Basic nesting is quite straight-forward to understand. But when the page gets larger, nesting can become complicated.

Therefore, before working with HTML, think about the layout structure you would like to have. You can draw it out on a piece of paper or in your mind. It will help a lot.

How to Nest HTML Elements

What are HTML Attributes?

Elements also have attributes, which contain extra information about the element that will not appear in the content.

In the example above, the <img> element has 2 attributes: src or source to specify the path of the image, and width to specify the width of the image in pixels.


With this example, you can see the following characteristics of attributes:

  • There is a space between attributes and the element name
  • Attributes are added in the opening tag
  • Elements can have many attributes
  • Attributes usually have a name and a value: name=“value”

But not every attribute has the same pattern. Some can exist without values, and we call them Boolean Attributes.

In this example, if we want to disable the button, all we have to do is pass a disabled attribute without any values. This means that the presence of the attribute represents the true value, otherwise, the absence represents the false value.

Common HTML elements

There are in total more than 100 elements. But 90% of the time you will only use around 20 of the most common. I have put them into 5 groups:

Section elements

These elements are used to organize the content into different sections. They are usually self-explanatory, for example, <header> usually represents a group of the introduction and navigation section, <nav> represents the section that contains navigation links, and so on.

Text content

These elements are used to organize content or text blocks. They are important to accessibility and SEO. They tell the browser the purpose or structure of the content.

These elements can be used together to create forms that users can fill out and submit. Forms might be the trickiest part of HTML.

Images and Links

These elements are used to insert an image or create a hyperlink.

These elements are used to add a break to the webpage.

You can find all the elements on developer.mozilla.org . But for beginners, you just need to know the most common ones.

Block-level vs inline HTML elements

By default, an element can be either block-level or an inline element.

Block-level elements are the elements that always start on a new line and take up the full width available.

Inline elements are the elements that do not start on a new line and it only take up as much width as necessary.


Two elements that represent block-level and inline elements, respectively, are <div> and <span> . In this example, you can see that the <div> elements takes 3 lines, whereas the <span> element only takes up 1 line.

But the question is: how do we know which ones are block-level elements and which ones are inline elements? Well, unfortunately you need to remember them. The easiest way is to remember which are inline elements – and the rest are block elements.

If we look back at the most common HTML elements, inline elements include: <span>, <input>, <button>, <label>, <textarea>, <img>, <a>, <br> .

How to comment in HTML

The purpose of comments is to include notes in the code to explain your logic or simply to organize your code.

HTML comments are wrapped in the special markers: <!-- and --> and they are ignored in the browser.

How to use HTML entities

What if you want to show the text: the <p> tag defines a paragraph. , but the browser interprets <p> as an opening tag for a new element? In this case, we can use HTML entities like in the following example:

How to use emoji in HTML

In the modern web, we can display emoji in HTML pretty easily, like this: 👻

Common beginner mistakes in HTML

1. tags/element names.

Tags/Element names are cAse-inSensitive. This means that they can be written in lowercase or uppercase, but it is recommended that you write everything in lowercase: <button> not <ButTon> .

2. Closing tag

Failing to include a closing tag is a common beginner error. Therefore, whenever you create an opening tag, immediately put in a closing tag.

This is wrong:

The tags have to open and close in a way that they are inside or outside one another.

4. Single quotes and Double quotes

You cannot mix single quotes and double-quotes. You should always use double quotes and use HTML entities if needed.

How to build a simple website with HTML

Individual HTML elements are not enough to create a website. So let's see what more we need to build a simple website from scratch.

How to create an HTML document

First, let's open Visual Studio Code (or your favorite code editor). In the folder of your choice, create a new file and name it index.html.

In the index.html file, type ! (exclamation mark) and press enter. You will see something like this:

This is the minimal code that an HTML document should have to make up a website. And here we have:

  • <!DOCTYPE html> : First we have Doctype. For some weird historical reason in HTML we have to include the doctype for everything to work correctly.
  • <html lang="en"></html> : The <html> element wraps all the content on the page, also known as the root element. And we should always include the lang attribute to declare the language of the page.
  • <head></head> : The <head> element is a container for everything you want to include, but not content that you show to your users.
  • <meta charset="UTF-8" /> : The first meta element is used to set the character set to be UTF-8, which includes most characters from written languages.
  • <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" /> : The second meta element specifies the browser viewport. This setting is for a mobile-optimized site.
  • <title>Document</title> : This is the <title> element. It sets the title of the page.
  • <body></body> : The <body> element contains all the content on the page.

How to build a pancake recipe page

Alright, now that we have the starter code, let's build a pancake recipe page. We are going to use the content from this AllRecipes Page .

First, let's give the <title> element content of the pancakes recipe. You will see the text on the web page tab change. In the <body> element, let's create 3 elements: <header> , <main> and <footer> representing 3 sections.

1. Build the header section

In the header, we want to have the logo and the navigation. Therefore, let's create a div with the content ALL RECIPE for the logo.

For the navigation, let's use the <nav> element. Within the <nav> element, we can use <ul> to create an unordered list. We want to have 3 <li> elements for 3 links: Ingredients, Steps, and Subscribe. The header code looks like this:

2. Build the Main Section

In the main section, first, we want to have a title and an image. We can use h1 for the title and <img> for the image (we can use an image from Unsplash for free):

Next, we want to list all the ingredients. We can use <ol> to create an ordered list and <input type="checkbox" /> to create a checkbox.

But before that, we can use <h2> to start a new content block. We also want to add the id attribute for <h2> so that the link in the navigation knows where to go:

After the ingredients, we want to list all the steps. We can use <h4> for the step heading and <p> for the step content:

Alright, now that we are done with the main section, let's move on to the footer section.

3. Build the Footer Section

In the footer, we want to have a subscribe form and copyright text.

For the subscribe form, we can use the <form> element. Inside it, we can have an <input type="text"> for text input and a <button> for the submit button.

For the copyright text, we can simply use a <div> . Notice here, we can use the HTML entity $copy; for the copyright symbol.

We can add <br> to add some space between the subscribe form and the copyright text:

Alright now we are done! Here is the full code for reference:

You can build a simple website with just HTML. But to be able to build beautiful and functional websites, you need to study CSS and JavaScript.

You can follow me on social media or Youtube for future updates on these topics. But meanwhile, you can check out the freeCodeCamp Curriculum to practice HTML by solving small tasks.

Otherwise, stay happy coding and see you in future posts 👋. __________ 🐣 About me __________

  • I am the founder of DevChallenges
  • Subscribe to my Channel
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Creator of devchallenges.io

If you read this far, thank the author to show them you care. Say Thanks

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Digital Design Journal

20+ Best HTML5 Tutorial for Beginners to Experts

HTML5 is the fifth and the most recent version of Hypertext Markup Language. As a web designer or developer, it is a great idea to always improve yourself with new knowledge to strengthen your skills. HTML5 is taking over gradually and by learning how to use this language, you will have opened doors for yourself in so many ways. If you want to stand out among many other developers and designers in the industry, then you need to sharpen your skills and to do that, you need tutorials.

HTML5 is a better and cheaper way of developing web apps and so on. Every next-generation web developer has to up his or her game to be able to conquer large projects. This markup language has a lot of features that make web apps function absolutely well. There are a lot of places you could learn how to code using HTML5 and one of such places is the internet. It is one of the biggest places to get in-depth knowledge but you have to know the right links or websites to get better lessons.

HTML5 includes a lot of new and updated APIs that have been merged or integrated with some of its new elements to make it more versatile. The whole point is that APIs help immensely in the development of web applications and it also makes sure these apps work even in a situation where it is offline for internet-driven apps.

HTML5 Tutorial – An Ultimate Guide for Beginners & Experts

This article aims at giving you links to some of the best websites, that you can use to learn HTML5 coding on your own for free. Although it is free, other sites require a small payment. Like everything else, you have to start learning HTML5 from the basic tutorials and make your way up the ladder to the advanced level. Below are the 20 plus HTML5 website coding tutorials for both beginners and professional developers/designers who are interested in learning more for future use.

W3schools HTML5 Tutorials

W3schools is a very good resource for those who want to start with basic HTML5 tutorials online. It has a large number of lessons to learn from. You can learn a whole lot with this resource and it is totally free to use, but many people in recent times have been pointing out some challenging issues saying they give bad lessons and bits of advice on the site. Other than that, you can still give it a try, you will definitely get a thing or two from their website.

W3schools HTML5 Tutorials

HTML5 for Beginners Tutorials

This is an HTML5 tutorial also for beginners by Joshua Johnson on designshack.net. The author has given concrete details about the use of HTML5 and some of its amazing features that come with it, including the major difference between HTML4.01 and XHTML 1.0. So, if you are umped up and ready to start your HTML5 journey, this is one good tutorial that will help you start the transition from the old to new HTML5.

HTML5 for Beginners Tutorials

Thecodeplayer HTML5 Tutorials

This is yet another website that offers free online HTML5 tutorials and more. Thecodeplayer is filled with knowledge and you will be able to learn a lot from HTMl5 to CSS3 and JavaScript in new ways you never imagined. This is also a great place for beginners to start. One of its biggest features is that you can watch a walkthrough video n how to write codes with a real-time demo.

Thecodeplayer HTML5 Tutorials

Lynda.com HTML5 Tutorials

Lynda.com is by far the best resource to use for learning practically anything on the internet. This website offers a lot of online courses in different categories such as software training, education and eLearning, 3D animation, CAD and many more with how-to video explanations. It is the best place to learn HTML5 from a beginner to an advanced level. The only thing is, it is not free like the rest of the other sites, they offer only premium services with a month free trial.

Lynda.com HTML5 Tutorials

Fundamentals of HTML5 & CSS3

This is a tutorial by the Microsoft Virtual Academy which explains the basics of combining HTML5 and CSS3 in web development. Since HTML5 means everything to web development, it allows front-end development of websites and so on. The author also lists out some of the new elements that make structuring a website or application easier. Also, you will find a lot of videos on HTML5 on this site for more elaborate lessons.

Fundamentals of HTML5 & CSS3

How to Design A Blog with HTML5

This tutorial goes a step further into HTML5’s features which include JavaScript APIs. The author explains how easy it is to develop a blog with interactive pages with semantics. This tutorial will also teach you about the new structural elements, form attributes, and the importance of <!DOCTYPE html> when coding. It basically explains how to create user-friendly blogs that work well with HTML5 supported browsers.

How to Design A Blog with HTML5

Playing with the HTML5 Filesystem & FileWriter API

Well, this is another deep tutorial that goes past the beginner’s level. In this tutorial, the author takes us deep into the process of implementing video and audio APIs, drawing with canvas, and many more by playing with some codes in the File System API. You will learn a lot about filesystem tasks and its basics, so go through the site and start improving your HTML5 skills.

Playing with the HTML5 Filesystem & FileWriter API

Coding a Clean Website Template in HTML5 & CSS3

Coding is not easy and not as hard as you imagined, once you have learned how to use HTML5, the next step is creating something nice with it. Most people just think of an idea or how they want their website or application to look like and they start working on it. But in this tutorial by Tony Thomas, it is better to break down the website into an HTML structure such as the planning and HTML code writing structure, image exporting from layout and styling the HTML with CSS. This and many you are the things you will learn from this tutorial.

Coding a Clean Website Template in HTML5 & CSS3

How to Design & Code HTML5 iPhone App Website

This advanced tutorial on line25.com will definitely teach you some mad skills in HTML5 implementation and design. Everyone who is a web designer or developer knows what it means to learn this new markup language. In this tutorial, you will learn how to build or code a smooth and sleek looking iPhone app website with the HTML5 structure and a combination of CSS3 styling effects to give it beauty.

How to Design & Code HTML5 iPhone App Website

How to Make All Browsers Render HTML5 Mark-up Correctly – Including IE6

As a web developer or designer who wishes to build a meaningful layout that is readable has no choice but to use HTML5. But HTML is fast evolving and most browsers are just catching up with the trend. Internet Explorer (IE) is one of such browsers who have just gotten on the bandwagon. So, this tutorial will teach you about the new semantic elements that come with HTML, and how to use JavaScript and CSS to design that will be rendered by any browser including IE6 easily.

How to Make All Browsers Render HTML5 Mark-up Correctly – Including IE6

An in-Depth Analysis of HTML5 Multimedia and Accessibility

This is a tutorial by Ian Devlin and it will teach you how HTML5 can help you provide different ways of presenting media contents on your website to site visitors. This is cool because after learning, you will be able to increase media content available on your website to visitors, by using various requirements and needs such as those using phones, laptops and more to view your site.

An in-Depth Analysis of HTML5 Multimedia and Accessibility

Coding a CSS3 & HTML5 One-Page Website Template

As you can see, the tutorials have gotten to the more advanced stages. To be ahead of your fellow web designers or developers, you need to enhance your skills with the latest web development techniques and technologies. Everything you know today will definitely be totally different tomorrow. So, in this tutorial, you will learn how to create a one-page website template using the latest HTML5 language.

Coding a CSS3 & HTML5 One-Page Website Template

Coding an HTML 5 Layout from Scratch

In this tutorial, you will learn how to combine HTML5 and CSS3 to effectively create or build amazing websites and applications all from scratch. This tutorial by Enrique Ramírez is detailed with examples of the step-by-step process to take while coding. To be a good developer, you must learn every day and technology has helped with that a lot. Nowadays, all you have to do is Google the right keywords and your answers come up.

Coding an HTML 5 Layout from Scratch

How to Build a Single Product Page using HTML5

Just like the other HTML5 tutorial in #12, this will also teach you how to build or create a single product promotional page. This is suitable for landing pages like the Apple iPhone 4 image below. It is a tutorial by Thoriq Firdaus and tutor has made this tutorial easy such that you will be able to work on test projects by creating and implementing a lot of methods.

How to Build a Single Product Page using HTML5

HTML 5 and CSS 3 Techniques You’ll Soon Be Using

HTML5 and CSS3 techniques you’ll soon be using is a tutorial on Envato by Mads Kjaer. This tutorial is designed to take you through all the new elements that come with this next generation markup language combined with CSS3 for the building of websites. It also includes lessons about the APIs you can use to draw graphics using canvas, drag and drop functions and so much more.

HTML 5 and CSS 3 Techniques You’ll Soon Be Using

Convert Your WordPress Theme to HTML5

Ahmad Awais created this tutorial on Envato with the aim to teach other aspiring developers, and the ones who are still learning, how to convert their WordPress themes from XHTML to HTML5. This was inspired by the Google Panda Update on February 2011. The update by Google is to help stop poor websites from ranking top on Google search results.

Convert Your WordPress Theme to HTML5

Create an HTML5 Canvas Tile Swapping Puzzle

Envato is another great place to find good tutorials and this is one of them. In this tutorial by Brad Manderscheid, you will learn how to use HTML5 canvas in combination with JavaScript to develop a tile swapping game that is dynamic in action. It will basically be a puzzle game that uses any image, and a number of difficulty levels that are flexible and adjustable.

Create an HTML5 Canvas Tile Swapping Puzzle

Mobilizing Websites with Responsive Design and HTML5 Tutorial

In this tutorial on the website opensourcehacker.com, you will learn how to make your existing websites responsive and mobile-friendly without the hassle of building a mobile site. It is detailed with examples and shows how you can do this by changing some little lines in the HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript codes of your site to give users a better experience on their mobile devices.

Mobilizing Websites with Responsive Design and HTML5 Tutorial

Create Your Portfolio Gallery Using HTML5 Canvas

This is another good tutorial for an advanced level learner. You will be working on building a portfolio gallery which you will also enhance using CSS3 transitions and HTML5 canvas. You are going to use the HTML5 canvas to create greyscale copies of the images and pure CSS3 for smooth transition changes.

Create Your Portfolio Gallery Using HTML5 Canvas

HTML5 Canvas Optimization: A Practical Example

In this tutorial, you will learn how to fix the JavaScript bug issue that makes your browser crash using HTML5 and JavaScript. It usually involves removing and adding some elements from your webpage or the CSS style properties responsible for the canvas animation. The tutorial focuses on a certain widget as an example which you can see the results from what you are doing easily.

HTML5 Canvas Optimization: A Practical Example

Have a Field Day with HTML5 Forms

This is a simple tutorial on how to create a user-friendly HTML5 form for your website or any other project you may be working on. In this tutorial, you will be taken through the whole process of building an HTML5 form with CSS3 techniques combined. Rest assured after this tutorial; you will definitely style some forms for yourself.

Have a Field Day with HTML5 Forms

Design a Foursquare-like User Profile Page in HTML5/CSS3

This is a tutorial by Jake Rocheleau and it is just super great. You will be able to learn how to create a simple user profile page using HTML5 and CSS3 codes with a live demo. The end result will be a foursquare-like user profile page for your website.

Design a Foursquare-like User Profile Page in HTML5/CSS3

The evolution of the old HTML (HyperText Markup Language) to its latest HTML5 is proof that the world is constantly changing and we must change with it. HTML is the main markup language that the World Wide Web uses to execute commands and queries. As a web developer or designer, it is important that you get out more knowledge and these 20+ HTML5 Website Coding Tutorials list is just the thing for you to learn with right from your home. For beginners, it is not as easy as it gets and you will learn these HTML5 skills in no time with the best tutorials. We hope this article will help you in your endeavour. Let us know what you think about these tutorials by leaving your comments below and watch this space for more information.

Puspesh Deolal

I am a passionate coding enthusiast with a strong desire to contribute to the world through sharing and expanding my knowledge. In 2022, I successfully completed my MCA from Uttarakhand Open University, equipping me with a solid foundation in computer science. My expertise extends to various programming languages including Python, HTML, CSS, JS, React, C++, C, Android Programming, and JAVA. I am constantly seeking opportunities to enhance my skills and stay at the forefront of technological advancements.

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HTML Tutorial - Complete basic guide for beginners

HTML is a markup language that creates webpage layout. There are at least 1.2 billion websites online today and all are designed by using HTML. Take our HTMl tutorial and get a complete basic guide for beginners.

If you are interested in developing websites, then, gaining an in-depth knowledge of HTML is the first step. Only after that you can start CSS and JavaScript coding.

We have created this HTML Tutorial for beginners with practical examples for every topic. So, go through this complete HTML tutorial and start climbing the ladder of a beautiful Web Designing journey.

In our previous article we gave a brief introduction to What is HTML? . We also talked about some prerequisites and popular HTML Editors . We suggest you to first read that article and then continue with this tutorial.

Useful Read: Full Stack Development – Steps to Become a Full Stack Developer .

  • 1: Is HTML a programming language?
  • 2: Short HTML History
  • 3: Features of HTML
  • 4: Advantages of Learning HTML
  • 5: Your first HTML webpage
  • 6: Microsoft Word as HTML Editor?
  • 7: HTML Versions Timeline

Is HTML a programming language?

HTML is called as a markup language that is different from a programming language. Its full form is Hypertext Markup Language. Now, What is a markup language?, What is Hypertext? How is it different from programming language? Let's explain each term and start our HTML tutorial:

  • Hypertext: Hypertext means, text with a link embedded in it. If you click on that link, it will open a new webpage. Apart from text, hypertext may contain HTML tables , HTML lists , HTML forms , HTML images , etc.
  • Markup language: Markup language uses tags to define elements within a document. It contains familiar words that are human-readable like forms , tables , links , titles , etc. Every tag in a markup language has a special meaning of its own and performs a particular operation.

In conclusion, HTML is not a programming language. A programming language uses logic to produce a result, it use conditional statements, variables, functions, etc. Whereas HTML is a markup language, that create structures using tags for the data presentation. There is no logic or algorithm involved.

Short HTML History

Let's quickly see the historical facts about HTML-

  • Sir Tim Berners-Lee developed HTML in late 1989, and he is considered as the Father of HTML.
  • In 1996, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) became the authority to maintain the HTML specifications.
  • It became an international standard (ISO) in 2000.

Features of HTML

Before diving deep into this complete HTML tutorial, it is necessary to get some fundamentals right. As a beginner, you should be aware of features and functionalities of HTML. Only then you will be able to take interest in HTML coding. Let's discuss the most important features of HTML:

  • It develops the structure of a webpage. All the blocks and elements present in a website, exist because of HTML.
  • Simple human-readable tags represent elements in a webpage. Hence, they are easy to remember.
  • It is universally supported by all browsers. It is a standard markup language for website development.
  • HTML 5 can give support in enhancing the experience in gaming arena.
  • It is easy to learn and implement.
  • It is platform independent, i.e., it works on all the operating systems.

Advantages of Learning HTML

Originally, HTML was developed to define the structure of webpages. It had some basic tags just for structural changes like heading tag, paragraph tag, list tag. However, continuous research and advancement in technology helped it develop over the years. Let us see some Advantages of HTML:

  • It has tags that optimize the website for search engine and boost performance. These tags are <meta> tags , <heading> tags , <title> tag , etc.
  • It is the base of designing and developing web pages. Once you get its basics right, other related technologies like Javascript , CSS , etc become easier to understand.

A beginner's first HTML code example with explanation

This is the first basic example in this HTML tutorial. Even for a beginner it is pretty easy to understand. Have a look at the structure of the HTML code, but don't stress too much about the unfamilar tags. This is your first example with very basic HTML tags:

This is a Heading

This is a Paragraph

Explanation of HTML tags used in the Example

  • <!DOCTYPE> - The doctype declaration indicates the document type and version of HTML used on the webpage. Each version has a different doctype declaration. HTML5 Doctype is used in this example.
  • <html> - It is the root tag that describes the whole webpage. It is a paired tag, i.e., it has a closing tag also, </html> . Everything will be written inside these tags.
  • <head> - Head tag contains information about the document like its title, author information, description of the webpage, and so on. It has different tags to perform these functions. It is also a paired tag.
  • <title> - Title tag is used inside <head> , and it specifies the title of the document.
  • <body> - The body tag contains all the information which will be displayed on the webpage. If you want anything to be displayed on the webpage, you have to write it within these tags.
  • <h1> - Heading tag is used to define headings. <h1> is the largest heading, followed by <h2> , <h3> , to <h6> .

You can try our online HTML editor and can make changes accordingly.

Microsoft Word as HTML Editor for this HTML tutorial?

Can you use word processors like MS Word for HTML editing? The answer is yes you can, but you shouldn't. You can write your HTML code on any application that gives you facility to write, but you should only use dedicated HTML editors or Notepad.

MS Word is not appropriate for coding because it won't be able to format code like a dedicated Editor. Formatting of code, like indentation, color scheme, etc. is very important, it results in less errors and the code looks appealing to the eyes. MS Word is not able to understand the HTML code and it will show grammatical errors.

So, during the complete HTML tutorial, don't even think of using MS Word as a code editor. Use Notepad, Brackets, Sublime, VSCode, etc. for website development and designing.

HTML Versions Timeline

HTML has evolved continuously with time. Each new version was better than the previous one with enhanced features. The current version is HTML5, equipped with various advanced tags. Lets have a look at the timeline of HTML Version's evolution:

Frequently Asked Questions

Do all website use html.

Yes, all the websites present on the internet use HTML for their layout. Even different CMS, like wordpress , magento, etc, where coding knowledge is not necessary, also use it to design websites.

Is there any alternative for HTML?

No, there is no alternative to HTML. It is a standard for creating webpages on the internet. It creates a base of the website. This base is then modified by using CSS, JavaScript, JQuery, Bootstrap, etc to beautify the website and to make it dynamic.

Is HTML hard to understand?

It is an easy language to learn. Anyone with some technical or non-technical background can opt to learn It. Being a markup language, it is easy to understand as it uses human-readable standard words for tags.

What are tags in HTML?

HTML use HTML tags to assign properties to the content. HTML with it's tags play a important role in web development. Learn full Html tutorial from the scratch. An HTML tag is a keyword surrounded by the sign '<>' . All these tags has a special meaning to web browser. Each tag's work is predefined and the content we write or insert between these tags will be displayed on the web page as per the definition of that tag. For example: <p>This is a paragraph</P>, this line will display a paragraph because the content we write between <p> tags get displayed as a paragraph in the browser.

What is the meaning of Markup Language?

A Markup language uses tags that can be predefined (in HTML), or user-defined (in XML). Any markup language is very easy to learn as it uses human-readable tags that are easy to remember.

What is the full form of HTML?

HTML Full Form is HyperText Markup Language.

What is Hypertext?

A HyperText is a text that contain a link to some other text or webpage. Hypertext document is a the one the contain Hyperlinks. HyperText is also sometimes used to define tables, images, etc with integrated Hyperlinks.

HTML Tutorial Index

We have learned basics of HTML, and in the next HTML tutorial we will learn about HTML tags and their use. Click on Next.

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15 Best Tutoring Website Design Examples We Love

Jenny Romanchuk

Published: October 31, 2023

Stuck in a sea of identical tutoring websites? Looking for design inspiration that breaks the mold, generates leads, and brings in clients?

tutoring website example photo

Then look no further. We've curated a selection of 15 captivating tutoring website examples that will ignite your creativity. From responsive designs to easy navigation, these websites have it all. Two of them even got me to sign up!

Free Download: 77 Examples of Brilliant Web Design

Best Tutoring Websites

MyTutor tutoring business website examples

Don't forget to share this post!

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77 of blog and website page design examples.

JS Tutorial

Js versions, js functions, js html dom, js browser bom, js web apis, js vs jquery, js graphics, js examples, js references, javascript popup boxes.

JavaScript has three kind of popup boxes: Alert box, Confirm box, and Prompt box.

An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.

When an alert box pops up, the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.

The window.alert() method can be written without the window prefix.

Confirm Box

A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.

When a confirm box pops up, the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.

If the user clicks "OK", the box returns true . If the user clicks "Cancel", the box returns false .

The window.confirm() method can be written without the window prefix.


A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.

When a prompt box pops up, the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.

If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. If the user clicks "Cancel" the box returns null.

The window.prompt() method can be written without the window prefix.

Line Breaks

To display line breaks inside a popup box, use a back-slash followed by the character n.

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HTML Table Vs Div: Best Practices For Web Design

Explore the practical uses of HTML tables and divs in web development, examining their impact on layout, accessibility, and responsive design to inform your markup decisions.

When structuring web content, the choice between using HTML tables or div elements is a common crossroads for developers.

Each has its distinct semantics and use cases that can impact accessibility, responsiveness, and maintainability of web pages.

This article examines the technical distinctions and practical implications of both elements to inform your approach to HTML markup.

html tutorial best

Understanding HTML Tables

The role of div elements in layout, comparing tables and divs for data presentation, accessibility considerations, responsive design with tables and divs, performance implications, frequently asked questions, basic table structure, advanced table features, styling tables.

HTML tables are a staple in web design, primarily used for displaying tabular data . They consist of rows and columns, allowing for the organization of information in a grid-like fashion.

The <table> tag creates the table structure, with <tr> , <th> , and <td> tags representing rows, header cells, and standard cells, respectively.

A simple table with headers might look like this:

For more complex tables, HTML offers additional tags such as <thead> , <tbody> , and <tfoot> , which help segment the table into logical sections.

This not only enhances semantic clarity but also aids in styling and manipulating the table data with CSS and JavaScript.

With CSS, you can transform the visual appearance of tables to make the data more readable and visually appealing. Here's a basic example of styling a table with CSS:

While tables are excellent for presenting data, they should be used judiciously. Overuse or incorrect use can lead to accessibility challenges and hinder the responsiveness of web pages on different devices.

It's crucial to evaluate whether a table is the most appropriate element for the content you're presenting.

Creating Layouts With Divs

Flexibility and responsiveness, divs and semantic html, nesting and organization.

The <div> element is a block-level container that is used to build web layouts and design web pages. Unlike tables, divs don't inherently have a visual representation and must be styled with CSS.

They are the backbone of modern web design, allowing for the creation of complex and responsive layouts.

Divs can be styled with CSS to create a variety of layouts. For example, a three-column layout can be achieved by floating divs side by side:

The introduction of CSS Flexbox and Grid has further enhanced the capabilities of div elements, making them the preferred choice for creating responsive designs.

They can adjust their size and position based on the viewport, ensuring that the web page looks good on all devices.

While divs are incredibly versatile, it's important to use them alongside semantic HTML elements like <header> , <footer> , <article> , and <section> to ensure that the web page is accessible and meaningful to both users and search engines.

Using divs for layout purposes has become a standard practice because they are much more adaptable than tables.

They can be easily styled, manipulated, and they do not impose a rigid structure like tables do, which makes them ideal for responsive design .

Divs can be nested within each other to create complex layouts. This nesting should be done thoughtfully to avoid excessive markup, which can complicate the design and slow down the website.

Performance And Load Times


Clean code is not written by following a set of rules. You don’t become a software craftsman by learning a list of heuristics. Professionalism and craftsmanship come from values that drive disciplines.

Robert C. Martin ("Uncle Bob")

A software engineer, and President of Object Mentor Inc.

Source: Quotes.pub

When it comes to data presentation , HTML tables have traditionally been the go-to method.

They provide a clear and straightforward way to display data in rows and columns, which is especially useful for comparative information, statistical data, or schedules.

However, div elements, styled with CSS, can also be used to present data.

While they require more CSS to achieve a grid-like structure, they offer greater flexibility and are more suited to creating responsive designs.

Styling and Visual Design : With CSS, both tables and divs can be styled to look visually identical. However, the underlying HTML structure will be different, and this can affect the performance and maintainability of the web page.

Tables render sequentially, meaning a browser will render each row as it comes, which can lead to faster perceived load times for large amounts of data.

Divs, styled with CSS, may not have this same incremental rendering advantage, but they often result in a cleaner and more modular codebase.

Choosing between tables and divs for data presentation depends on the specific needs of the content, the importance of accessibility, and the desired level of responsiveness and flexibility.

It's crucial to weigh these factors to decide the best approach for each unique situation.

Semantic HTML

Aria roles and attributes, testing with assistive technology.

Accessibility is a crucial aspect of web development, ensuring that content is available to all users, including those with disabilities.

HTML elements come with inherent accessibility features that, when used correctly, make web content more accessible.

Using semantic HTML tags is the first step in building an accessible website. Elements like <table> , <th> , and <caption> provide screen readers with information on how to interpret the structure and content of data.

When using divs for layout, it's important to include ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) roles and attributes to communicate the role, state, and properties of elements to assistive technology.

Color Contrast and Font Sizes: Visual considerations like sufficient color contrast and resizable text are also part of accessibility. These are CSS-related adjustments that need to be made regardless of whether a table or div is used.

Finally, testing your website with screen readers and other assistive technologies is the best way to ensure accessibility. This helps in identifying any issues that might not be evident through code inspection alone.

Incorporating these accessibility considerations into your development process is not just about compliance with standards; it's about inclusivity and ensuring that all users have equal access to information and functionality.

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Tables In Responsive Design

Divs in responsive design, media queries, testing across devices.

Responsive design is essential in a world where web content is accessed across a multitude of devices with varying screen sizes.

When it comes to creating responsive layouts, both tables and divs can be used, but they come with different challenges and solutions.

Tables have a fixed structure which can be difficult to manipulate on smaller screens.

However, by using CSS properties such as display: block or overflow: auto , you can make tables horizontally scrollable on small devices, preserving the data without compromising the layout.

Div elements, when combined with CSS Flexbox or Grid , offer a more fluid approach to responsive design. They can adjust their layout based on the viewport size, making it easier to create a consistent experience across devices.

Using media queries is a common method to apply different styles to tables or divs depending on the screen size. This allows for fine-tuned control over how content is displayed on various devices.

It's important to test your responsive designs on actual devices to ensure that your tables or div layouts adapt correctly and remain usable and accessible.

Responsive design requires a balance between structure and flexibility. Tables offer a semantic and straightforward way to present data but can be rigid.

Divs, styled with CSS, offer more flexibility but require a deeper understanding of responsive design techniques. The choice between them should be guided by the content needs and the context in which it will be viewed.

The performance of a website can be significantly impacted by the choice between using tables or divs, especially as it relates to page loading times and rendering speed.

Tables And Rendering

Css and performance, javascript and dom manipulation, optimizing for performance.

Tables can cause performance issues when they are deeply nested or when they contain a large amount of data. Browsers typically need to load the entire table before it can be rendered, which can lead to delayed content visibility .

The use of CSS to style divs for layout can also have performance implications. Overuse of certain properties, like box shadows or gradients, can slow down rendering. It's important to use efficient CSS for styling:

When JavaScript is used for DOM manipulation, divs are often easier to handle and update, which can lead to better performance compared to updating table elements.

This is because changes to div layouts are generally less likely to cause reflow of the entire page.

To optimize performance, it's recommended to minimize the use of complex table structures and to use divs where a simpler layout would suffice.

Additionally, leveraging CSS techniques like CSS Grid and Flexbox can provide layout solutions that are both performant and responsive.

In conclusion, while both tables and divs have their place in web design, careful consideration of their impact on performance is crucial.

By optimizing the use of tables for data display and divs for layout, developers can ensure a smooth and efficient user experience.

How can I make my tables responsive?

To make tables responsive, you can use CSS techniques such as making the table scrollable horizontally with overflow-x , or reformatting the table with media queries to display differently on smaller screens.

Do divs have any advantages over tables in terms of performance?

Divs can have performance advantages over tables as they are generally lighter and the browser can render them faster. However, the real-world performance difference will depend on how they are used and styled.

How do I ensure accessibility when using divs for layout?

Ensure accessibility by using proper ARIA roles and attributes to describe the structure and purpose of your layout elements. Also, maintain a logical tab order and use semantic HTML wherever possible.

Let's see what you learned!

HTML Tables vs. Divs: Which to Use?

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