- Awards Season
- Big Stories
- Pop Culture
- Video Games
Stay Entertained and Inspired with These Addictive Drawing Art Games
Are you a fan of drawing and looking for new ways to stay entertained and inspired? Look no further than drawing art games. These addictive games not only provide hours of fun but also help improve your artistic skills. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced artist, these games offer a wide range of challenges and opportunities to let your creativity flow. In this article, we will explore some of the best drawing art games available today that are sure to keep you captivated.
Sketchful.io: Unleash Your Imagination in Online Multiplayer Fun
If you enjoy playing Pictionary or charades, Sketchful.io is the perfect game for you. This online multiplayer game allows you to compete against players from around the world in a virtual drawing showdown. The objective is simple: guess what other players are drawing while taking turns creating your own masterpieces. With a wide variety of words and themes, Sketchful.io offers endless possibilities for creative expression.
Draw Something: Collaborate and Challenge Friends
Remember playing “Pictionary” with friends? Draw Something brings that experience to your smartphone or tablet. This popular mobile game allows you to challenge friends or random opponents by taking turns guessing each other’s drawings. The more accurate your guesses, the more coins you earn to unlock new colors and tools for even more detailed creations. With its simple interface and addictive gameplay, Draw Something is a must-have for any artist on the go.
Procreate: Elevate Your Digital Artistry Skills
For those looking for a more professional drawing experience, Procreate is the ultimate digital art studio on iPad. This powerful app offers an extensive set of tools, brushes, and features that rival traditional art mediums. With its intuitive interface and advanced layering system, Procreate allows artists to create stunning illustrations, paintings, and sketches with ease. Whether you’re a beginner or a professional, Procreate is a game-changer in the world of digital art.
Skribbl.io: Test Your Drawing and Guessing Skills
Skribbl.io is another exciting online multiplayer drawing game that puts your creativity and guessing skills to the test. In this fast-paced game, players take turns drawing a given word while others try to guess it within a limited time frame. The quicker you guess correctly, the more points you earn. Skribbl.io features various drawing tools to help you bring your ideas to life and challenge your friends or random opponents in an exhilarating race against time.
In conclusion, drawing art games offer a unique and entertaining way to unleash your creativity while having fun. Whether you prefer online multiplayer challenges or solo digital artistry, these games provide endless opportunities for artistic growth and inspiration. So why not grab your favorite device, download one of these addictive drawing art games, and let your imagination run wild? Get ready to embark on an exciting journey filled with colors, brushes, and endless possibilities.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
MORE FROM ASK.COM
Online Gaming Addiction and Basic Psychological Needs Among Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Meaning in Life and Responsibility
- Original Article
- Open access
- Published: 10 January 2023
You have full access to this open access article
- Alican Kaya ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-2933-0161 1 ,
- Nuri Türk ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7059-9528 2 ,
- Hasan Batmaz ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-5979-1586 3 &
- Mark D. Griffiths ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-8880-6524 4
Explore all metrics
Cite this article
Individuals whose basic needs are naturally satisfied are much less dependent on their environment and more autonomous. Basic psychological needs (i.e., the general motivators of human actions) are significant predictors of online gaming addiction. Moreover, it has been posited that meaning and responsibility in life are at the center of life from an existential point of view. Therefore, a hypothetical model was tested to examine the relationships between basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness), online gaming addiction, responsibility, and meaning in life. Data were collected from a sample of 546 participants. Mediation analysis was conducted, and the results indicated that basic psychological needs, online gaming addiction, responsibility, and meaning in life had significant negative and positive relationships. The findings indicated that responsibility and meaning in life had a serial mediating effect in the relationship between basic psychological needs and online gaming addiction. The findings also showed that the inverse relationship between online gaming addiction and basic psychological needs was at least partially explained by meaning in life and responsibility. The results of the present study are of great importance and suggest that interventions to satisfy the basic psychological needs of adolescents may help prevent online gaming addiction.
Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.
Technological addictions have become an area of increasing research interest and are conceptualized as non-chemical (i.e., behavioral) addictions (Kuss & Billieux, 2017 ). Moreover, they can be engaged in actively or passively (Widyanto & Griffiths, 2006 ). For example, television addiction is a passive technological addiction, whereas smartphone addiction and Internet addiction are active technological addictions (Griffiths, 2017 ). Online addictions have increased rapidly due to the increased use of smartphones, tablets, and laptops. Furthermore, overuse of the Internet has been conceptualized in a number of different ways, including problematic Internet use (Aboujaoude et al., 2006 ; Young, 2009 ), excessive Internet use (Choi et al., 2009 ; Lee et al., 2008 ), and Internet addiction (Griffiths, 2017 ) with some considering it to be an impulsive disorder (Young & Rodgers, 2009 ). In addition, online gaming addiction, which is another addiction associated with the Internet, is defined by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013 ) as the consistent and prolonged use of the Internet to play videogames, frequently with other gamers, that causes disruption and clinically impairs several aspects of a person’s life (e.g., personal relationships, occupation and/or education). Key characteristics of online gaming addiction are individuals obsessively playing online videogames to the point of neglecting everything else in their lives, which leads to social and/or psychological disorders in such individuals (Ates et al., 2018 ; Batmaz & Çelik, 2021 ).
Previous studies have indicated various variables that predict and/or are associated with gaming addiction, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety and depression (Andreassen et al., 2016 ), social anxiety (Karaca et al., 2020 ), low self-esteem (Kim et al., 2022 ), inter-personal competence (Lee et al., 2019 ), relationship problems and relationship problems, and hostile family environment (Sela et al., 2020 ). In addition, social skill deficits (Mun & Lee, 2022 ), social and psychological isolation (Young, 2009 ), perceived stress (Rajab et al., 2020 ), suicidality (Erevik et al., 2022 ), and aggressive behaviors (McInroy & Mishna, 2017 ) have been reported among individuals who develop gaming addiction.
Although online gaming meets the various needs of individuals, when the behavior turns into an addiction, it leads to adverse effects on individuals, especially adolescents, where it can impair their mental health (Batmaz et al., 2020 ; Purwaningsih & Nurmala, 2021 ). Among adolescents, online gaming addiction has been reported to disrupt mental health, increase depression, anxiety, and psychoticism, disrupt family relationships (De Pasquale et al., 2020 ), lower quality of life (Beranuy et al., 2020 ), increase social phobia (Wei et al., 2012 ), lower school performance, and improve sleep deprivation (Chamarro et al., 2020 ; Király et al., 2015 ). In short, online gaming addiction negatively affects adolescents’ lives in different areas (Griffiths, 2022 ; Haberlin & Atkin, 2022 ). Therefore, research is needed to delineate the causes of online gaming addiction, eliminate its adverse effects, and implement necessary treatment.
Although many studies have been conducted examining online game addiction among adolescents (see Rosendo-Rios et al., 2022 ) for a recent review of studies), there are few studies examining the relationship between basic psychological needs and online game addiction (Bekir & Celik, 2019 ). In the present study, it is posited that basic psychological needs could be predictors due to the relationship with gaming disorders and problematic gaming (Allen & Anderson, 2018 ; Liu et al., 2021 ; Yu et al., 2015 ). When basic psychological needs are not met, it pushes individuals to exhibit maladaptive behavioral reactions (i.e., online gaming addiction) (Bekir & Çelik, 2019 ). In addition, few studies have addressed the relationship between responsibility and meaning in life and online game addiction (Arslan, 2021 ; Kaya, 2021 ). Moreover, no study has ever examined the mediating role of responsibility and meaning in life in the relationship between basic psychological needs and online game addiction. For these reasons, the present study examined the mediating roles of responsibility and meaning in life in explaining the relationship between basic psychological needs and online game addiction.
Online Gaming Addiction and Basic Psychological Needs
Self-determination theory is a well-established motivational theory comprising six mini-theories (Ryan & Deci, 2017 ). One of these mini-theories is the Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT), which claims that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs is associated with better health and greater psychological well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2000 ). Basic psychological needs are requirements for psychological development, integrity, and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2000 ). In contrast to the often-frustrating real world, videogames are designed to satisfy all three psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) (Rigby & Ryan, 2011 ). Satisfaction of the needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness can explain large amounts of the variance in game enjoyment (Rigby & Ryan, 2011 ; Tamborini et al., 2011 ). Online gaming can fulfill the (i) need for relatedness by directing players to social relationships with real or fictional characters, (ii) need for autonomy by giving them management and control within the game, and (iii) need for competence by making them feel successful in playing challenging videogames (Allen & Anderson, 2018 ).
Individuals addicted to videogames need novelty seeking, socialization, competition, and/or entertainment (Hussain et al., 2012 ; Larrieu et al., 2022 ). Studies have shown that gaming addiction is related to basic needs (Billieux et al., 2015 ) and psychological needs such as success, independence, fun, and respect (Herodotou et al., 2012 ). The increasing demand for playing videogames shows that adolescents try to satisfy some of their psychological needs via the Internet (Shen et al., 2013 ; Turan, 2021 ). One longitudinal study found that problematic online gaming and satisfaction of basic psychological needs were positively associated (Yu et al., 2015 ). It has also been reported that adolescents whose basic psychological needs were not met and whose perceived social support was low had high levels of gaming addiction (Yıldırım & Zeren, 2021 ). In this context, some studies claim that online games are tools for satisfying basic psychological needs (Oliver et al., 2016 ). However, studies have shown that the low level of basic psychological need satisfaction in real life can be met with high need satisfaction in online gaming, which leads to addiction for a small minority (Kardefelt-Winther, 2014 ; Rigby & Ryan, 2017 ; Wu et al., 2013 ). Based on the aforementioned literature, it was expected that there would be a significant negative relationship between basic psychological needs derived from real-life and online gaming addiction.
Online Gaming Addiction and Meaning in Life
The debate about the meaning in life has been ongoing for years (Yalom, 2020 ). Because there are many definitions of meaning in life, making a standard definition of meaning in life has been difficult (King & Hicks, 2021 ; Park, 2010 ). Meaning in life is a multifaceted construct conceptualized in various ways that address the value and purpose of life, meaningful life goals, and sometimes spirituality (Jim et al., 2006 ). According to Ryff ( 1989 ), meaning in life is a sign of a sense of direction, goals, and well-being. Frankl ( 2009 ) states that meaning in life differs from individual to individual, day to day, and hour to hour. Many studies have been conducted regarding meaning in life and concepts in the literature. For instance, some of these studies assert that meaning in life increases happiness (Debats et al., 1993 ) and life satisfaction (Yıkılmaz & Demir Güdül, 2015 ) and that the presence of meaning in life positively affects psychological health (Bailey & Phillips, 2016 ) and has a high level of meaning that can lower the incidence of depression (Mascaro & Rosen, 2005 ).
Similar to the aforementioned studies, adolescents’ having meaning in life can protect them from problematic behaviors such as substance abuse and eating disorders (Brassai et al., 2011 ; Shek et al., 2019 ). Adolescence is a period of seeking identity (Erikson, 1968 ) and decision-making (Marcia, 1980 ). Steger et al., ( 2006 ) pointed out that adolescents’ experience of seeking meaning in life or having a meaning in life may be determinative for successful identity development. However, considering that questioning the meaning in life results from the search for identity, it could be speculated that adolescents who constantly play online videogames will be far from such a search. Although studies have shown that adolescents search for identity in while online gaming (Monacis et al., 2017 ; Subrahmanyam & Šmahel, 2011 ; Tanhan & Özlem, 2015 ), it has been reported that excessive online gaming can also make this exploration more maladaptive, and this may lead to online gaming addiction (King & Delfabbro, 2014 ; Kokkini et al., 2022 ). One study reported that as gaming addiction decreases among adolescents, the level of meaning in life increases (Kaya, 2021 ). In general, it is expected in the present study that the existence of meaning in life in among adolescents will reduce online gaming addiction.
Online Gaming Addiction and Responsibility
One of the characteristic features of online gaming addiction is that individuals spend their time playing online games by procrastinating and/or not doing their daily work (Thatcheret al., 2008 ). According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, one criterion for Internet gaming disorder is that individuals continue to play online games despite being aware of psychosocial problems (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). Here, individuals fail to engage in important day-to-day responsibilities and play online games instead. Similarly, it has been shown that online gaming addicts jeopardize or lose their job, education, and/or career opportunities to play online games (Kardefelt-Winther, 2014 ). Time spent playing games instead of engaging in life’s more important tasks can be viewed as a lack of responsibility by individuals themselves, their families, and/or friends (Wartberg et al., 2017 ; Zhang et al., 2019 ).
Responsibility consists of three elements: accountability, liability, and imputability (Robinson, 2009 ). Imputability refers to individuals being responsible for their actions and decisions, accountability refers to fulfilling contractual expectations, and liability refers to assuming a moral responsibility without a contract (Holdorf & Greenwald, 2018 ). The concept of responsibility therapy is defined as the ability of individuals to meet their own needs while allowing others around them to meet their needs (Corey, 2015 ). Being conscious of responsibility means that individuals are aware of themselves and their feelings, thoughts, and pain (Yalom, 2020 ). Dökmen ( 2019 ) defines it as a responsibility to accept the consequences on others of what an individual does or does not do based on his thoughts.
In addition, it is discussed in the literature under two dimensions: emotion (Berkowitz & Daniels, 1963 ; Özen, 2013 ) and behavior (Glasser, 2005 ; Taylı, 2006 ). Individuals with a sense of responsibility have characteristics such as acting with awareness of their own and others’ rights, respecting others, and attempting to fulfill their responsibilities (Özen, 2011 ; Yough et al., 2022 ). On the other hand, individuals who do not have a sense of responsibility make themselves and others feel worthless while living without a plan or program (Cüceloğlu, 2015 ). Studies have shown that a low sense of responsibility can lead to aggression, lying, and avoidance of responsibility, while a high level of responsibility can trigger perfectionism, leading to anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorders (Taylı, 2013 ; Wang et al., 2022 ).
The behavior of responsibility, the second sub-dimension of responsibility (Yalom, 2020 ), means that individuals can take responsibility by bearing the consequences of their behavior without attributing it to someone else (Douglass, 2001 ; Shahzadi et al., 2022 ). It has a function that improves positive activities and prevents harmful activities (Kesici, 2018 ). For example, individuals who act responsibly are respected by society and avoid punishment (Douglass, 2001 ). On the other hand, during adolescence, when serious responsibilities begin to be undertaken, a minority of individuals may move away from social life due to gaming addiction. Because of this situation, other people in the individual’s social life (e.g., family and friends) become unimportant to adolescents with low awareness of responsibility. Recent studies have observed that adolescents who excessively play videogames have difficulty fulfilling their responsibilities (Dinçer & Kolan, 2020 ; Doğan & Pamuk, 2022 ). In the present study, it was expected that adolescents with higher levels of responsibility would be less addicted to online gaming (i.e., an inverse relationship).
Basic Psychological Needs, Meaning in Life, Responsibility, and Online Game Addiction
Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) focuses on the satisfaction and frustration of psychological needs and argues that these needs significantly impact individuals’ psychological health and well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2000 ). Lack of fulfillment of basic psychological needs leads to negative consequences (e.g., depression, stress, and addiction) (Cantarero et al., 2021 ; Levine et al., 2022 ; Orkibi & Ronen, 2017 ; Xiao & Zheng, 2022 ). However, satisfying these needs is associated with positive outcomes such as general self-efficacy (İhsan et al., 2011 ), mental resilience (Kilinç & Gürer, 2019 ), subjective well-being (Akbağ & Ümmet, 2018 ), and obtaining meaning in life (Çelik & Gazioğlu, 2017 ). Furthermore, Weinstein et al. ( 2012 ) suggested that the search for meaning increased significantly when these needs were satisfied. Individuals whose needs are fulfilled are more prone to seek meaning in their life and, therefore, to experience meaning in their life, whereas individuals whose needs are not fulfilled experience a sense of meaninglessness (Eakman, 2013 ). According to Steger ( 2006 ), although individuals continue to search for meaning in one area of their lives, they may have meaning in a different area of their life. Meaning in life is defined as the purpose and importance of the life that individuals derive from their experiences (Baumeister & Vohs, 2002 ; Steger et al., 2006 ). Frankl ( 1969 ) posited that to achieve the meaning of life, an individual must take responsibility for realizing their potential, even at a young age. Therefore, a meaningful life requires individuals taking responsibility for themselves and others.
Responsibility refers to the individual’s sense of duty toward family, friends, and society (Geçtan, 2006 ), and can be examined in personal and social dimensions (Arslan & Wong, 2022 ). Personal responsibility means that an individual is accountable to themselves and to the needs or well-being of others (Ruyter, 2002 ). It also emphasizes self-responsibility by representing the individual’s behaviors and choices that can affect themselves and others (Mergler & Shield, 2016 ). Social responsibility relates to values that support individuals’ moral and prosocial behavior (Wray-Lake & Syvertsen, 2011 ). It includes decisions and actions that benefit others and society (Martins et al., 2015 ). Moreover, it is an important source of support in strengthening individuals’ mental health and improving their life skills (Martins et al., 2017 ) as well as coping with addictions (Amini et al., 2020 ). Therefore, individuals’ personal and social responsibility can protect them against negative situations such as developing addictions (e.g., online gaming addiction) (Chiou & Wan, 2007 ).
Online games allow individuals to meet other players, have fun, achieve status, and obtain financial benefits (Ballabio et al., 2017 ; Columb et al., 2022 ). In addition, escaping from the problems of real life, even temporarily, and achieving relaxation are among the benefits that individuals gain through gaming (Yee, 2006 ). Consequently, online gaming can lead individuals to play online games frequently and for long periods of time, which in turn can lead to the risk of addiction (Luciana, 2010 ; Sachdeva & Verma, 2015 ). The 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) characterized gaming disorder as a repetitive or persistent pattern of gaming behavior (World Health Organization, 2019 ). Individuals that are affected by online gaming addiction have also been reported to experience problems with interpersonal relationships (Wongpakaran et al., 2021 ), occupation (Lelonek-Kuleta et al., 2021 ), and health (Chan et al., 2022 ). As such, online gaming addiction can lead to situations that threaten the lives and functionality of individuals through the process and its consequences.
The Present Study
The present study was framed according to self-determination and existentialist positive psychology theories. Self-determination theory (SDT) suggests that the non-satisfaction or inhibition of basic psychological needs can lead to negative consequences (i.e., online gaming addiction). In addition, it emphasizes that behaviors emerge from the individual’s beliefs, meaning, and value judgments rather than external factors (i.e., social norms and group pressure). According to the SDT, need (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) predicts meaning in life (Eakman, 2013 ). Moreover, in a longitudinal study based on SDT, individuals whose basic psychological needs were fulfilled had increased meaning in life (Zhang et al., 2022 ). In addition, the existentialist theory of positive psychology suggests that the meaning in life, which individuals create themselves, can be sustained through responsibility. Individuals having responsibility can also enable them to lead a meaningful life (Arslan & Yıldırım, 2021 ; Wong, 2019 ). According to Wong ( 2010 ), meaning consists of the components of purpose, understanding, responsibility, and enjoyment (PURE). In addition to responsibility being one of the basic concepts that constitute meaning, the search for meaning in life continues intensely during adolescence (Steger, 2012 ). This is especially the case for adolescents who begin to question people and the world deeply, having a meaningful life can protect them from behavioral addictions (Qiu et al., 2022 ; Zhao et al., 2020 ). Considering the role of responsibility and meaning in the life of adolescents, it is important to examine online game addiction, which may be affected by basic psychological needs. Therefore, a serial mediation model was determined based on the assumptions of self-determination and existential positive psychotherapy theory.
In addition to the aforementioned theoretical framework, studies have shown that unfulfilled basic psychological needs are predictors of online gaming addiction (Allen & Anderson, 2018 ; Liang et al., 2021 ; Mills & Allen, 2020 ; Yu et al., 2015 ). However, studies conducted with adolescents have found a relationship between online gaming addiction and responsibility and meaning in life (Doğan & Pamuk, 2022 ; Kaya, 2021 ). In the present study, which also considers the different dynamics in online gaming addiction, a new model is proposed to examine the relationship between basic psychological needs and online gaming addiction through responsibility and meaning in life. In this context, the present study assessed whether basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affect the relationship between online gaming addiction, meaning in life, and responsibility among adolescents. Four research questions were investigated: Do basic psychological needs predict online gaming addiction? (RQ1); Does the level of responsibility have a mediating effect on the relationship between basic psychological needs and online game addiction? (RQ2); Does meaning in life have a mediating effect on the relationship between basic psychological needs and online game addiction? (RQ3); Do responsibility and meaning in life have a serial mediating effect on the relationship between basic psychological needs and online game addiction? (RQ4).
Power analysis was performed via the G* Power 220.127.116.11 program to determine the sample size required for the present study. For this purpose, at the conventional significance level of 0.05 and power at 0.80, a small effect size is determined as r = 0.20 (Cohen, 2013 ). As a result of the analysis, it was determined that the required sample size was 395. The sample in the present study comprised 546 individuals (393 females and 153 males). The participants ranged from 15 to 18 years old, with a mean age of 16.25 years (SD ± 0.82). Just below half the sample of the participants were in the 9th grade ( n =252; 46.2%), 156 were in the 10th grade (28.6%), 74 were in the 11th grade (13.6%), and 64 were in the 12th grade (11.7%). Over one-third of the sample self-reported their socioeconomic status (SES) as being low ( n =210; 38.5%), 224 reported it as being medium (41.0%), and 112 reported it as being high (20.5%). Participants stated that they played videogames 3.56 h daily on average (SD ± 3.12). The number of devices they used to play online videogames was 2.09 (SD ± 0.96).
Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS)
The 21-item BPNS (Deci & Ryan, 2000 ; Turkish version: Kesici et al., 2003 ) was used to assess basic psychological needs. The scale consists of three subscales: (i) autonomy (AU), (ii) competence (CMP), and (iii) relatedness (RLT). The scale has 21 items that tap into the satisfaction of autonomy (e.g., “I feel free to decide how to live my life”), relatedness (e.g., “There aren’t many people in my life that I feel close to”), and competence (e.g., “The people I know say that I am successful in what I do”) which are rated on five-point Likert scale from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 5 ( strongly agree ). The higher the score, the greater fulfillment of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In the present study, the scale’s internal reliabilities for the need for autonomy were α=.76, McDonald’s ω= 76; the need for competence were α =.67, McDonald’s ω= 68; and the need for relatedness were α =.82, McDonald’s ω= 83.
Meaning in Life Questionnaire Scale (MILQS)
The 10-item MILQS (Steger et al., 2006 ; Turkish version: Demirbaş-Çelik and İşmen-Gazioğlu, 2015 ) was used to assess meaning in life. Items (e.g., “I’m always looking for my life’s purpose”) are rated on seven-point Likert scale from 1 ( definitely disagree ) to 7 ( definitely agree ). The total score ranges between 10 and 70. The higher the score, the higher the individual’s level of search for meaning in life. In the present study, the internal reliability for the existence of meaning in life was α=.85 and for seeking meaning in life was α=.82. For the overall scale, Cronbach’s α was .67, and McDonald’s ω was .72.
Sense of Responsibility and Behavior Scale (SRBS)
The 18-item SRBS (Özen, 2013 ) was used to assess responsibility. Items (e.g., “I feel responsible for being a member of charitable organizations”) are rated on four-point scale ranging from 1 ( never ) to 4 ( always ). The total score ranges between 18 and 72. The higher the score, the greater the level of responsibility. The SRBS consists of two subscales and each can be used separately. The sense of responsibility sub-dimension was used in the present study. For this sub-dimension, Cronbach’s α was .86, and McDonald’s ω was .87.
Online Game Addiction Scale (OGAS)
The 21-item OGAS (Başol & Kaya, 2018 ) was used to assess online gaming addiction. Items (e.g., “My friendships were damaged/broken due to online games”) are rated on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 ( absolutely disagree ) to 5 ( absolutely agree ). The total score ranges between 21 and 105 points. The higher the score, the greater the risk of online gaming addiction. In the present study, Cronbach’s α was .88, and McDonald’s ω was .89.
Procedure and Ethics
Participants were selected from three different high schools in Turkey in the cities of Ağrı, Karabük, and Siirt. The schools were informed about the purpose and duration of the study. The researchers visited the schools, and informed consent forms were distributed. Written informed consent forms were obtained from the legal guardians or parents of the adolescents who volunteered to participate in the study. The purpose of the study was explained to the participants. The eligibility criteria for participation in the study were being an adolescent and being an individual who played (or used to play) one or more online videogames. An online link to the survey was sent to the participants, and each participant was allowed to complete the survey only once. All data were collected using Google Forms in the classroom. Participants were reminded that they might stop answering at any stage of the survey process if they wanted to. Participants were asked not to provide personal information to ensure anonymity and confidentiality. Ethics committee approval of this research was obtained from Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University (reference number: 110), and every research stage was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
All analyses were carried out using SPSS version 26, Hayes’ ( 2018 ) PROCESS Macro (version 3), and G* Power 18.104.22.168 programs. Before starting the analysis, the necessary assumptions to perform the analysis were tested. The kurtosis and skewness values were examined to understand whether the assumptions required for the prerequisites of parametric tests were met. The skewness and kurtosis values for a normal distribution have acceptable threshold values if they are ±2 (George, 2010 ). There were no assumption violations in the research data. In addition, it was found that the correlation between the study variables was not high. The correlations ranged between .17 and .63 ( p <.001). The research variables were also examined to ensure there were no multicollinearity issues. When the tolerance, variance inflation factor (VIF), and confidence interval (CI) values were examined, these values were all within acceptable limits. It was determined that VIF was between 1.12 and 1.48, the tolerance value was between .67 and .89, and CI was between 7.21 and 17.88. The limit values required to avoid multicollinearity problems are more than 0.20 for the tolerance value, less than 10 for the VIF value, and less than 30 for the CI value (Albayrak, 2005 ; Büyüköztürk, 2016 ; Şata, 2020 ). Consequently, no multicollinearity problems were detected. Mahalanobis distance values were examined to determine whether there were outliers in the sample. A total of 21 outliers were identified in the dataset. These outliers were excluded from the analysis, meaning the final sample size was 546. SPSS PROCESS macro was utilized to conduct mediation analyses (Hayes, 2018 ). The bootstrapping method was employed with 5000 resampling and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to test the significance of the mediating pathways. An effect is deemed significant if the confidence interval does not contain zero (Preacher & Hayes, 2008 ).
Table 1 shows the correlations between all the main variables in the study (basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness), online gaming addiction, responsibility, and meaning in life). Pearson correlations indicated that all variables were significantly (albeit moderately and weakly) related.
Serial Multiple Mediational Analyses—Modeling Data
Table 2 , Table 3 , and Table 4 show the results of the serial mediation analysis. First, there was a direct effect of autonomy on online gaming addiction ( β =−.67, p <.001). Moreover, the relationship between competence and online gaming addiction was examined. There was a direct effect of competence on online gaming addiction ( β =−.63, p < . 001). When the relationship between relatedness, the last of the basic psychological needs, and online gaming addiction was examined, there was a direct effect of relatedness on online gaming addiction ( β =−.48, p < . 001). There was also a significant indirect effect of autonomy on online gaming addiction via responsibility (indirect effect=−.12, SE=.02, 95% CI= [−.20, −.06]). Also, the indirect effect of competence on online gaming addiction via responsibility was significant (indirect effect=−.19, SE=.02, 95% CI= [−.31, −.10]). Lastly, the indirect effect of relatedness on online gaming addiction via responsibility was significant (indirect effect=−.17, SE=.01, 95% CI= [−.26, −.10]).
When indirect effects were examined, there was a significant indirect effect of autonomy on online gaming addiction via meaning in life (indirect effect=−.07, SE=.02, 95% CI= [−.14, −.00]). Also, the indirect effect of competence on online gaming addiction via meaning in life was significant (indirect effect=−.11, SE=.02, 95% CI= [−.22, −.00]). Lastly, the indirect effect of relatedness on online gaming addiction via meaning in life was significant (indirect effect=−.05, SE=.01, 95% CI= [−.10, −.01]).
Moreover, the indirect effects of autonomy on online gaming addiction via meaning in life and responsibility were tested. The effect was significant (testing serial multiple mediation; effect=−.04 SE=.01, 95% CI= [−.07, −.01]). Also, the indirect effects of competence on online gaming addiction via meaning in life and responsibility were tested. The effect was significant (testing serial multiple mediation; effect=−.02 SE=.01, 95% CI= [−.04, −.00]). Moreover, the indirect effects of relatedness on online gaming addiction via meaning in life and responsibility were tested. The effect was significant (testing serial multiple mediation; effect=−.02 SE=.01, 95% CI= [−.06, −.01]). In the relationship between basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) and online gaming addiction, meaning in life and responsibility had serial mediating effects.
The results indicated that autonomy predicted online gaming addiction. When autonomy was entered as the predictor, it significantly predicted online gaming addiction ( β = −0.67, t = −5.58, p < .001), and accounted for 5.4% of the variance in the model. Figure 1 shows the regression coefficients of the mediation model. The indirect path mediated by responsibility ( β =−.12, 95% CI= [−.20, −.06]) produced a higher change in variance than the indirect path mediated by meaning in life ( β =−.07, 95% CI= [−.14, −.00]) in the relationship between relatedness and online gaming addiction (see Table 2 ). Therefore, responsibility appeared to have a higher effect than meaning in life. Autonomy predicted a higher level of meaning in life. It also predicted a higher level of responsibility. Higher meaning in life was associated with a higher level of responsibility. Higher level of responsibility was associated with lower online gaming addiction. Consequently, the results indicated that the relationship between autonomy and online gaming addiction was partially mediated by meaning in life and responsibility (see Fig. 1 ).
The results of the serial multiple mediational models
It was also found that competence predicted online gaming addiction. There was also an indirect relationship between competence and online gaming addiction ( β = −0.64, t = −4.13, p < .001), accounting for 4.7% of the variance in the model. Competence predicted meaning and responsibility in life. The indirect path mediated by responsibility ( β =−.19, 95% CI= [−.31, −.10]) produced a higher change in variance than the indirect path mediated by meaning in life ( β =−.11, 95% CI= [−.22, −.00]) in the relationship between competence and online gaming addiction Furthermore, the relationship between competence and online gaming addiction was mediated by meaning in life and responsibility separately (see Table 3 ). The results also showed that meaning in life and responsibility had serial mediation effects in the relationship between competence and online gaming addiction (see Fig. 2 ).
Lastly, the results indicated that relatedness predicted online gaming addiction ( β = −0.48, t = −4.63, p < .001). When relatedness was included in the model, it was found that it accounted for 3.8% of the variance. Moreover, there was also an indirect relationship between relatedness and online gaming addiction. When the indirect effects are examined, the indirect path mediated by responsibility ( β =−.17, 95% CI= [−.26, −.10]) produced a higher change in variance than the indirect path mediated by meaning in life ( β =−.05, 95% CI= [−.10, −.01]) in the relationship between relatedness and online gaming addiction (see Table 4 ). The results suggested that the relationship between relatedness and online gaming addiction was partially mediated by meaning in life and responsibility (see Fig. 3 ).
In self-determination theory (SDT), basic psychological needs comprise autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In SDT (Deci & Ryan, 2000 ), basic psychological needs are expressed as essential psychological nutrients for psychological development, integrity, and well-being. Negative psychological consequences occur when requirements are not met, neglected, or prevented (Deci & Ryan, 2000 ). If individuals cannot satisfy a basic need, they engage in activities that give pleasure to individuals momentarily, even if they do not satisfy them (Antunes et al., 2020 ; Deci & Ryan, 2011 ). One of these activities is online gaming, which has an incredibly interactive structure. At the same time, online videogames are appreciated because they create an environment where both the need for relatedness and autonomy are met in the virtual world. Individuals naturally seek new challenges to experience a sense of efficacy even when no external rewards (e.g., money) are earned (Dindar, 2018 ; Matsumoto, 2009 ). The fact that online games have a reward mechanism is suitable for activating feelings of competence among individuals. It is thought that adolescents tend to meet their basic psychological needs (need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) that they cannot fully meet from their parents or close friends through online gaming.
The present study examined the mediating role of meaning in life and the level of responsibility in the relationship between online gaming addiction and basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) among adolescents. Findings showed that autonomy predicted online game addiction. In other words, autonomy had significant negative effect on online game addiction. Considering that addiction is related to reduced autonomy (Amatem, 2008 ), it can be said that the finding is compatible with the literature. However, there is a study in which there was a negative relationship between the need for autonomy and digital game addiction among adolescents (Dursun and Çapan, 2018 ), which supports the research finding. On the contrary, there is a study in which autonomy and online game addiction had significant positive relationships (Bekir and Çelik, 2019 ). Similarly, it is known that the need for autonomy has a positive relationship with social media addiction (Young-Ju et al., 2018 ) and a negative relationship with Internet addiction (Piri et al., 2018 ; Zeren & Can, 2019 ). These studies, which have obtained different results, make the relationship between the need for autonomy and digital addictions open to discussion but also show that further research is needed.
According to the present study’s findings, it was found that relatedness and competence, as well as autonomy, predicted online gaming addiction. Studies have shown that competence and relatedness have significant relationships with online gaming addiction (Bekir and Çelik, 2019 ; Dursun and Çapan, 2018 ). In addition, research has shown that relatedness has a negative relationship with short-form video addiction (Yang et al., 2022 ), and relatedness dissatisfaction positively correlates with Internet gaming disorder (Hui et al., 2019 ). Moreover, significant negative relationships have been found between competence and smartphone addiction (Gao et al., 2022 ; Sun et al., 2020 ) and Internet addiction (Zeren & Can, 2019 ; Canoğulları, 2014 ). Based on these results concerning technological addictions, it can be said that the literature findings and the results of the present study are compatible.
The tendency of individuals to play online videogames may be to meet their autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs (Ryan et al., 2006 ). In addition, when basic psychological needs are prevented, technological addictions (gaming addiction, smartphone addiction, social network addiction, and Internet addiction) increase (Gugliandolo et al., 2020 ). This may be the compensation for unmet basic psychological needs through addiction (Kuss et al., 2017 ; Mills et al., 2018 ). Therefore, fulfilling basic psychological needs in real life and eliminating the problems that prevent this satisfaction can be a protective factor against online gaming addiction.
Another finding of the present study was that the level of responsibility hads a mediating effect on the relationship between basic psychological needs and online gaming addiction. However, there was a positive and significant relationship between basic psychological needs and responsibility. In contrast, a significant negative relationship was found between responsibility and online gaming addiction. Considering that the components of responsibility (accountability, liability, and imputability) in Robinson’s ( 2009 ) definition appear less important in online environments, it is assumed that adolescents who are addicted to online gaming experience less sense of responsibility. A recent study found that a higher level of responsibility significantly predicted online gaming addiction, whereas a lower level of responsibility negatively affected online gaming addiction (Kesici, 2020 ).
Research conducted by Arslan ( 2021 ) found that secondary school students’ sense of responsibility and behavior had a crucial predictive role in online gaming addiction. Another study reported a significant negative relationship between the students’ videogame addiction and their personal and social responsibility behavior (Dinçer & Kolan, 2020 ). Based on previous studies and the results of the present study, it is thought that increasing the level of responsibility of secondary and high school students would reduce gaming addiction. Adolescents whose level of responsibility increases are also more likely to engage in responsible behavior. This is supported by studies in the literature that physical education and sports play an essential role in helping adolescents acquire responsible behavior (Bayraktar et al., 2016 ; Bugdayci, 2019 ; Tazegül, 2014 ). These studies’ results are considered necessary regarding online gaming addiction because such behavior leads to a sedentary lifestyle (Cómez-Mármol et al., 2017 ).
Findings indicated that meaning in life had a mediating effect on the relationship between basic psychological needs and online gaming addiction. However, there was a positive and significant relationship between basic psychological needs and meaning in life. In contrast, a significant negative relationship between meaning in life and online gaming addiction was found. These findings demonstrate the importance of meaning in life in preventing online gaming addiction among adolescents. A study by Kaya ( 2021 ) on adolescent online gaming addiction found that as the level of online gaming addiction decreased, the level of meaning in life increased. These results suggest that meaning in life affects online gaming addiction as a cause and consequence. Considering that having a meaningful life increases resilience (Batmaz et al., 2021 ; Doğrusever et al., 2022 ), low resilience increases gaming addiction (Canale et al., 2019 ), and gaming addiction reduces happiness (Kaya, 2021 ; Turan, 2021 ), meaning in life seems to be an essential variable that can affect gaming addiction.
What makes the present study unique to the online gaming addiction literature is that responsibility and meaning in life had a serial mediating effect on the relationship between basic psychological needs and online gaming addiction. In other words, the results indicated that the relationship between relatedness, competence, and autonomy with online gaming addiction was partially mediated by meaning in life and responsibility. This finding suggests that the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness increases the level of meaning in life, which in turn reduces online game addiction. Similarly, online game addiction can decrease as the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness increases the level of responsibility. In addition, based on the serial mediation effect, it suggests that meeting the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness can reduce adolescents’ online game addiction by increasing their meaning in life and their level of responsibility.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first to examine the mediating role of responsibility and meaning in life between basic psychological needs and online gaming addiction. The associations between these variables provide greater understanding and knowledge concerning online gaming addiction and provide additional insight into the significant causes that underlie playing games online (which may be potential factors in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction among adolescents). Moreover, fulfilling basic psychological needs appears to increase responsibility and meaning in life and reduce susceptibility to online gaming addiction. The findings enrich the literature because it suggests new protective factors that might prevent adolescents from developing online gaming addiction.
The findings offer relevant practical implications for adolescents, educators, families, private and public health institutions, and mental health professionals to assist them in designing addiction prevention strategies and policies. Results also suggest that basic psychological need satisfaction fulfilment in real life plays an important role in the development and maintenance of online gaming addiction among adolescents. Educators, parents, and adolescents could utilize awareness of the factors contributing to online gaming addiction to help them take preventive measures against it. In addition, if adolescents have high levels of responsibility and meaning in life, it may help reduce online game addiction. Considering the findings, it is recommended that mental health professionals provide training and services that increase the level of responsibility among adolescents and enable them to have meaning in their lives to prevent the onset of online gaming addiction. In addition, private and public health institutions should implement training programs to improve the skills of parents, such as digital parenting, to cope with online gaming addiction. This training should also ensure that parents behave with awareness of the basic psychological needs of adolescents in the family and that they gain thoughts and approaches that can add responsibility and meaning in life.
As in all studies, the present study also has some limitations. The first is that the study was cross-sectional. Conducting a cross-sectional study means that causality between the study variables cannot be determined. Second, completing the survey online may have influenced respondents’ responses (with those without home Internet access unable to participate). The online data were also collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, adolescents living in isolated environments may have increased their gaming during this period. This unusual situation may have resulted in a lower sense of responsibility and a less meaningful life. This is consistent with the present study’s findings. Another limitation is that the participants were high school students studying in different schools in Turkish provinces, so the findings are not necessarily generalizable to all Turkish schoolchildren. The sample was also limited because it did not include other education levels, such as primary and secondary schools and children from different geographical and cultural regions in Turkey and/or other countries. Future studies are needed with different age groups, such as primary school, secondary school, university students, adults, and various geographical regions in the sample groups (both in and outside Turkey). Such studies are needed to confirm the findings reported here and should include other research designs (e.g., longitudinal studies to determine causality between variables) and other types of data (e.g., qualitative interview data to attain richer data). Another limitation of the present study was that the participant’s responses were self-report and therefore subject to well-established method biases (e.g., social desirability, memory recall).
The study’s findings indicated that adolescents whose basic psychological needs were met exhibited lower levels of online gaming addiction than adolescents whose basic psychological needs were not met. Consequently, the adverse effects of online gaming addiction may be reduced by interventions that meet adolescents’ basic psychological needs. Similarly, a significant negative relationship was found between responsibility and online gaming addiction. Consequently, it appears that adolescents who fulfill the requirements of individual and social responsibilities (studying, spending time with family, going out with friends, etc.) have greater protection from the more negative effects of online gaming. However, when meaning in life and responsibility are included in the relationship between basic psychological needs and online gaming addiction, the effect of basic psychological needs on online game addiction decreases. This suggests that meaning in life and responsibility have a serial mediating role between basic psychological needs and online gaming addiction.
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the first author upon reasonable request.
Aboujaoude, E., Koran, L. M., Gamel, N., Large, M. D., & Serpe, R. T. (2006). Potential markers for problematic internet use: A telephone survey of 2.513 adults. CNS Spectrum, 11 (10), 750–755. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852900014875
Article Google Scholar
Akbağ, M., & Ümmet, D. (2018). Ana-babaya bağlanma ile öznel iyi oluş arasındaki ilişkide temel psikolojik ihtiyaçların doyumunun aracı rolü. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal , 8 (50), 59–85. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/571505
Albayrak, A. S. (2005). Çoklu doğrusal bağlantı halinde en küçük kareler tekniğinin alternatifi yanlı tahmin teknikleri ve bir uygulama. ZKÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 1 (1), 105–126. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijmeb/issue/54840/750869
Allen, J. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2018). Satisfaction and frustration of basic psychological needs in the real world and video games predict internet gaming disorder scores and well being. Computers in Human Behavior, 84 , 220–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.034
Amatem. (2008). Bilgisayar ve internet . Ankara: Amatem Yayınları.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®) . American Psychiatric Publishing.
Book Google Scholar
Amini, Z., & Heidary, B. S. (2020). What components of adolescents’ responsibility are effective in preventing addiction? Advanced Biomedical Research, 9 (1), 2–8. https://doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_204_19
Andreassen, C. S., Billieux, J., Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., Demetrovics, Z., Mazzoni, E., & Pallesen, S. (2016). The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30 (2), 252–262. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000160
Antunes, R., Frontini, R., Amaro, N., Salvador, R., Matos, R., Morouço, P., & Rebelo- Gonçalves, R. (2020). Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (12), 4360–4372. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124360
Article CAS Google Scholar
Arslan, A. (2021). Ortaokul öğrencilerinde oyun bağımlılığı ile sorumluluk duygusu davranışı ve sosyal beceriler arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [Unpublished master’s thesis] . İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim Üniversitesi.
Arslan, G., & Wong, P. T. (2022). Measuring personal and social responsibility: an existential positive psychology approach. Journal of Happiness and Health, 2 (1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.47602/johah.v2i1.5
Arslan, G., & Yıldırım, M. (2021). Perceived risk, positive youth–parent relationships, and internalizing problems in adolescents: Initial development of the Meaningful School Questionnaire. Child Indicators Research, 14 (5), 1911–1929. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-021-09841-0
Ates, B., Kaya, A., & Tunç, E. (2018). The ınvestigation of predictors of cyberbullying and cyber victimization in adolescents. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14 (5), 103–118. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2018.157.9
Bailey, T. H., & Phillips, L. J. (2016). The influence of motivation and adaptation on students’ subjective well-being, meaning in life and academic performance. Higher Education Research & Development, 35 (2), 201–216.
Ballabio, M., Griffiths, M. D., Urbán, R., Quartiroli, A., Demetrovics, Z., & Király, O. (2017). Do gaming motives mediate between psychiatric symptoms and problematic gaming? An empirical survey study. Addiction Research & Theory, 25 (5), 397–408. https://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2017.1305360
Başol, G., & Kaya, A. B. (2018). Motives and consequences of online game addiction: A scale development study. Archives of Neuropsychiatry, 55 (3), 225–232. https://doi.org/10.5152/npa.2017.17017
Batmaz, H., & Çelik, E. (2021). Examining the online game addiction level in terms of sensation seeking and loneliness in university students. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 8 (2), 126–131. https://doi.org/10.5152/ADDICTA.2021.21017
Batmaz, H., Ulusoy, Y., & İnceoğlu, F. (2020). The mediating role of digital game addiction in the correlation between cyber victimization and cyber bullying. Sciences Studies Journal, 6 (73), 5093–5108. https://doi.org/10.26449/sssj.2726
Batmaz, H., Türk, N., & Doğrusever, C. (2021). The mediating role of hope and loneliness in the relationship between meaningful life and psychological resilience in the Covid-19 Pandemic during. Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 9 (5), 1403–1420. https://doi.org/10.18506/anemon.895199
Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2002). The pursuit of meaningfulness in life. In: In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology , (pp. 608–618). Oxford University Press
Bayraktar, G., Tozoğlu, E., Gülbahçe, Ö., Öztürk, M. E., & Gülbahçe, A. (2016). Üniversite öğrencilerinin bireysel sosyal sorumluluk düzeylerinin spor ve farklı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Uluslararası Hakemli Akademik Spor Sağlık Ve Tıp Bilimleri Dergisi, 18 , 77–88.
Bekir, S., & Çelik, E. (2019). Examining the factors contributing to adolescents’ online game addiction. Anales De Psicología/annals of Psychology, 35 (3), 444–452. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.35.3.323681
Berkowitz, L., & Daniels, L. R. (1963). Responsibility and dependency. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66 (5), 429–436. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0049250
Beranuy, M., Machimbarrena, J. M., Asunción Vega-Osés, M., Carbonell, X., Griffiths, M. D., Pontes, H. M., & González-Cabrera, J. (2020). Spanish validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF): Prevalence and relationship with online gambling and quality of life. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (5), 1562–1577. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051562
Billieux, J., Thorens, G., Khazaal, Y., Zullino, D., Achab, S., & Van der Linden, M. (2015). Problematic involvement in online games: A cluster analytic approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 43 , 242–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.10.055
Brassai, L., Piko, B. F., & Steger, M. F. (2011). Meaning in life: Is it a protective factor for adolescents’ psychological health? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18 (1), 44–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-010-9089-6
Bugdayci, S. (2019). Examining personal and social responsibility levels of secondary school students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7 (1), 206–210. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.070126
Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2016). Data analysis handbook for social sciences (22nd ed.). Pegem Akademi Publishing.
Canale, N., Marino, C., Griffiths, M. D., Scacchi, L., Monaci, M. G., & Vieno, A. (2019). The association between problematic online gaming and perceived stress: The moderating effect of psychological resilience. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 8 (1), 174–180. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.01
Canoğulları, Ö. (2014). İnternet bağımlılık düzeyleri farklı ergenlerin cinsiyetlerine göre psikolojik ihtiyaçları, sosyal kaygıları ve anne baba tutum algılarının incelenmesi . (Unpublished Master's thesis), Çukurova Üniversitesi, Adana
Cantarero, K., Van Tilburg, W. A., & Smoktunowicz, E. (2021). Affirming basic psychological needs promotes mental well-being during the COVID-19 outbreak. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 12 (5), 821–828. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550620942708
Çelik, N. D., & Gazioğlu, E. İ. (2017). Üst-düzey kişilik faktörleri ve yaşamda anlam: temel psikolojik ihtiyaçlarin araci rolü. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 20 (38), 11–32. https://doi.org/10.31795/baunsobed.645147
Chamarro, A., Oberst, U., Cladellas, R., & Fuster, H. (2020). Effect of the frustration of psychological needs on addictive behaviors in mobile videogamers—The mediating role of use expectancies and time spent gaming. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (17), 6429. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176429
Chan, G., Huo, Y., Kelly, S., Leung, J., Tisdale, C., & Gullo, M. (2022). The impact of eSports and online video gaming on lifestyle behaviours in youth: A systematic review. Computers in Human Behavior, 126 , 106974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106974
Chiou, W. B., & Wan, C. S. (2007). Using cognitive dissonance to induce adolescents’ escaping from the claw of online gaming: The roles of personal responsibility and justification of cost. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10 (5), 663–670. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.9972
Choi, K., Son, H., Park, M., Han, J., Kim, K., Lee, B., & Gwak, H. (2009). Internet overuse and excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63 , 455–462. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.01925.x
Cohen, J. (2013). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences . Routledge.
Columb, D., Griffiths, M. D., & O’Gara, C. (2022). Online gaming and gaming disorder: More than just a trivial pursuit. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 39 (1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1017/ipm.2019.31
Cómez-Mármol, A., Martínez, B. J., Sánchez, E. D., Valero, A., & González-Víllora, S. (2017). Personal and social responsibility development through sport participation in youth scholars. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17 (2), 775–782. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2017.02118
Corey, G. (2015). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Nelson Education.
Cüceloğlu, D. (2015). Anlamlı ve coşkulu bir yaşam için savaşçı . Remzi Kitabevi.
De Pasquale, C., Sciacca, F., Martinelli, V., Chiappedi, M., Dinaro, C., & Hichy, Z. (2020). Relationship of internet gaming disorder with psychopathology and social adaptation in Italian young adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (21), 8201. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218201
Debats, D. L., Van der Lubbe, P. M., & Wezeman, F. R. (1993). On the psychometric properties of the Life Regard Index (LRI): A measure of meaningful life: An evaluation in three independent samples based on the Dutch version. Personality and Individual Differences, 14 (2), 337–345. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(93)90132-M
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The” what” and” why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11 (4), 227–268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Levels of analysis, regnant causes of behavior and well-being: The role of psychological needs. Psychological Inquiry, 22 (1), 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/1047840X.2011.545978
Demirbaş-Çelik, N., & İşmen-Gazioğlu, E. (2015). Meaning in life questionnaire high school form: Turkish validity and reliability. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty, 33 , 42–60.
Dinçer, B., & Kolan, H. İ. (2020). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin bilgisayar oyun bağımlılığı düzeyleri ile sorumluluk davranışı arasındaki ilişki. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 28 (6), 2319–2330. https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.833550
Dindar, M. (2018). Do people play MMORPGs for extrinsic or intrinsic rewards? Telematics and Informatics, 35 (7), 1877–1886. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2018.06.001
Doğan, D. A., & Pamuk, İ. (2022). Uzaktan eğitim sürecinde ergenlerin çevrimiçi oyunlara yönelik deneyimleri: Fenomenolojik bir araştırma. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research, 8 (1), 71–86. https://doi.org/10.24289/ijsser.1032025
Doğrusever, C., Türk, N., & Batmaz, H. (2022). The mediating role of meaningful life in the relationship between self-esteem and psychological resilience. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 23 (2), 910–928. https://doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.1029866
Dökmen, Ü. (2019). Varolmak gelişmek uzlaşmak , İstanbul, Remzi Kitapevi.
Douglass, N. H. (2001). Saygı ve sorumluluk eğitiminde yeni yaklaşımlar . Nobel Yayınları. Dökmen, Ü. (2019). Varolmak, gelişmek, uzlaşmak . Sistem Yayıncılık
Dursun, A., & Çapan, B. E. (2018). Ergenlerde dijital oyun bağımlılığı ve psikolojik ihtiyaçlar. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 19 (2), 128–140. https://doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.336272
Eakman, A. M. (2013). Relationships between meaningful activity, basic psychological needs, and meaning in life: Test of the meaningful activity and life meaning model. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 33 (2), 100–109. https://doi.org/10.3928/15394492-20130222-02
Erevik, E. K., Landrø, H., Mattson, Å. L., Kristensen, J. H., Kaur, P., & Pallesen, S. (2022). Problem gaming and suicidality: A systematic literature review. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 15 , 100419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2022.100419
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis . Norton.
Frankl, V. (1969). The will to meaning . New American Library.
Frankl, V. E. (2009). İnsanın anlam arayışı . Okuyan Us Yayıncılık.
Gao, Q., Zheng, H., Sun, R., & Lu, S. (2022). Parent-adolescent relationships, peer relationships and adolescent mobile phone addiction: The mediating role of psychological needs satisfaction. Addictive Behaviors, 129 , 107260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107260
Geçtan, E. (2006). İnsan olmak (5. Baskı). Metis
George, D. (2010). SPSS for windows step by step: A simple study guide and reference, 17.0 update (10th ed.). Pearson
Glasser, W. (2005). Responsibility, respect and relationships: Creating emotionally safe classrooms . Quality Educational Programs Inc.
Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Behavioural addiction and substance addiction should be defined by their similarities not their dissimilarities. Addiction, 112 (10), 1718–1720. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13828
Griffiths, M. D. (2022). Online gaming addiction in youth: Some comments on Rosendo-Rios et al. (2022). Addictive Behaviors, 130 , 107311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107311
Gugliandolo, M. C., Costa, S., Kuss, D. J., Cuzzocrea, F., & Verrastro, V. (2020). Technological addiction in adolescents: The interplay between parenting and psychological basic needs. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 18 (5), 1389–1402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00156-4
Haberlin, K. A., & Atkin, D. J. (2022). Mobile gaming and Internet addiction: When is playing no longer just fun and games? Computers in Human Behavior, 126 , 106989. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106989
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication Monographs, 85 (1), 4–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2017.1352100
Herodotou, C., Winters, N., & Kambouri, M. (2012). A motivationally oriented approach to understanding game appropriation. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 28 (1), 34–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2011.566108
Holdorf, W. E., & Greenwald, J. M. (2018). Toward a taxonomy and unified construct of responsibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 132 , 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.028
Hui, B. P. H., Wu, A. M., Siu, N. Y., Chung, M. L., & Pun, N. (2019). The effects of need satisfaction and dissatisfaction on flourishing among young Chinese gamers: The mediating role of internet gaming disorder. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16 (22), 4367. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224367
Hussain, Z., Griffiths, M. D., & Baguley, T. (2012). Online gaming addiction: Classification, prediction and associated risk factors. Addiction Research & Theory, 20 (5), 359–371. https://doi.org/10.3109/16066359.2011.640442
İhsan, S., Yenigün, Ö., Altıncı, E. E., & Öztürk, A. (2011). Temel psikolojik ihtiyaçların tatmininin genel öz yeterlik ve sürekli kaygı üzerine etkisi (Sakarya Üniversitesi Spor Yöneticiliği Bölümü örneği). Spormetre Beden Eğitimi Ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 9 (4), 149–156. https://doi.org/10.1501/Sporm_0000000212
Jim, H. S., Richardson, S. A., Golden-Kreutz, D. M., & Andersen, B. L. (2006). Strategies used in coping with a cancer diagnosis predict meaning in life for survivors. Health Psychology, 25 , 753–761. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-622.214.171.1243
Karaca, S., Karakoc, A., Can Gurkan, O., Onan, N., & Unsal Barlas, G. (2020). Investigation of the online game addiction level, sociodemographic characteristics and social anxiety as risk factors for online game addiction in middle school students. Community Mental Health Journal, 56 (5), 830–838. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-019-00544-z
Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2014). Problematizing excessive online gaming and its psychological predictors. Computers in Human Behavior, 31 , 118–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.017
Kaya, A. (2021). Adölesanlarda dijital oyun bağımlılığının mutluluk ve yaşamın anlamına etkisi. Bağımlılık Dergisi, 22 (3), 297–304. https://doi.org/10.51982/bagimli.902685
Kesici, A. (2018). Lise öğrencilerinin sorumluluk düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesi. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 38 (3), 965–985.
Kesici, A. (2020). The effect of conscientiousness and gender on digital game addiction in high schoolstudents. Journal of Education and Future, 18 , 43–53.
Kesici, Ş, et al. (2003). Temel psikolojik ihtiyaçlar ölçeğinin geçerlik ve güvenirliği . Malatya, Turkey: VII. National PDR Congress İnönü University.
Kilinç, Z., & Gürer, B. (2019). Doğa sporları yapanların temel psikolojik ihtiyaçlarının zihinsel dayanıklılığa etkisi. CBÜ Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 14 (2), 222–233. https://doi.org/10.33459/cbubesbd.576242
Kim, D., Nam, J. K., & Keum, C. (2022). Adolescent internet gaming addiction and personality characteristics by game genre. PloS One, 17 (2), e0263645. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263645
King, D. L., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2014). The cognitive psychology of internet gaming disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 34 (4), 298–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.03.006
King, L. A., & Hicks, J. A. (2021). The science of meaning in life. Annual Review of Psychology, 72 , 561–584. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-072420-122921
Király, O., Urbán, R., Griffiths, M. D., Ágoston, C., Nagygyörgy, K., Kökönyei, G., & Demetrovics, Z. (2015). The mediating effect of gaming motivation between psychiatric symptoms and problematic online gaming: An online survey. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17 (4), e3515. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3515
Kokkini, V., Tseliou, E., Abakoumkin, G., & Bozatzis, N. (2022). “Immersed in world of warcraft”: A discursive study of identity management talk about excessive online gaming. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 41 (5), 590–612. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X211067820
Kuss, D. J., & Billieux, J. (2017). Technological addictions: Conceptualisation, measurement, etiology and treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 64 , 231–233.
Kuss, D. J., Dunn, T. J., Wӧlfling, K., Müller, K. W., Hędzelek, M., & Marcinkowski, J. (2017). Excessive Internet use and psychopathology: the role of coping. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14 (1), 73–81. https://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/28364
Larrieu, M., Billieux, J., & Decamps, G. (2022). Problematic gaming and quality of life in online competitive videogame players: Identification of motivational profiles. Addictive Behaviors, 133 , 107363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107363
Lee, Y. S., Han, D. H., Yang, K. C., Daniels, M. A., Na, C., Kee, B. S., & Renshaw, P. F. (2008). Depression like characteristics of 5HTTPLPR polymorphism and temperament in excessive internet users. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109 , 165–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.10.020
Lee, J. Y., Ko, D. W., & Lee, H. (2019). Loneliness, regulatory focus, inter-personal competence, and online game addiction: A moderated mediation model. Internet Research, 29 (2), 381–394. https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-01-2018-0020
Lelonek-Kuleta, B., Bartczuk, R. P., & Wiechetek, M. (2021). Pay for play–Behavioural patterns of pay-to-win gaming. Computers in Human Behavior, 115 , 106592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106592
Levine, S. L., Brabander, C. J., Moore, A. M., Holding, A. C., & Koestner, R. (2022). Unhappy or unsatisfied: Distinguishing the role of negative affect and need frustration in depressive symptoms over the academic year and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Motivation and Emotion, 46 (1), 126–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-021-09920-3
Liang, Q., Yu, C., Xing, Q., Liu, Q., & Chen, P. (2021). The influence of parental knowledge and basic psychological needs satisfaction on peer victimization and internet gaming disorder among Chinese adolescents: A mediated moderation model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (5), 2397. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052397
Liu, D., Wang, Z., Yang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, R., & Lin, S. (2021). Perceived autonomy-supportive parenting and internet addiction: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia moderated the mediating effect of basic psychological need satisfaction. Current Psychology, 40 (9), 4255–4264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00485-6
Luciana, R. P. (2010). One minute more: Adolescent addiction for virtual world. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2 (2), 3706–3710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.576
Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159–187). Wiley.
Martins, P., Rosado, A., Ferreira, V., & Biscaia, R. (2015). Examining the validity of the personal-social responsibility questionnaire among athletes. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física, 21 (3), 321–328. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-65742015000300014
Martins, P., Rosado, A., Ferreira, V., & Biscaia, R. (2017). Personal and social responsibility among athletes: The role of self-determination, achievement goals and engagement. Journal of Human Kinetics, 57 (1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0045
Mascaro, N., & Rosen, D. H. (2005). Existential meaning’s role in the enhancement of hope and prevention of depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality, 73 (4), 985–1014. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00336.x
Matsumoto, D. (2009). The Cambridge dictionary of psychology . Cambridge University Press.
McInroy, L. B., & Mishna, F. (2017). Cyberbullying on online gaming platforms for children and youth. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 34 (6), 597–607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-017-0498-0
Mergler, A., & Shield, P. (2016). Development of the Personal Responsibility Scale for adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 100 (51), 50–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.05.011
Mills, D. J., & Allen, J. J. (2020). Self-determination theory, internet gaming disorder, and the mediating role of self-control. Computers in Human Behavior, 105 , 106209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.106209
Mills, D. J., Milyavskaya, M., Heath, N. L., & Derevensky, J. L. (2018). Gaming motivation and problematic video gaming: The role of needs frustration. European Journal of Social Psychology, 48 (4), 551–559. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2343
Monacis, L., de Palo, V., Griffiths, M. D., & Sinatra, M. (2017). Exploring individual differences in online addictions: The role of identity and attachment. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15 (4), 853–868. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-017-9768-5
Mun, I. B., & Lee, S. (2022). A longitudinal study of the impact of parental loneliness on adolescents’ online game addiction: The mediating roles of adolescents’ social skill deficits and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 136 , 107375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2022.107375
Oliver, M. B., Bowman, N. D., Woolley, J. K., Rogers, R., Sherrick, B. I., & Chung, M. Y. (2016). Video games as meaningful entertainment experiences. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 5 (4), 390–405. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000066
Orkibi, H., & Ronen, T. (2017). Basic psychological needs satisfaction mediates the association between self-control skills and subjective well-being. Frontiers in Psychology, 8 , 936. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00936
Özen, Y. (2011). Sorumluluk eğitimi . Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
Özen, Y. (2013). Sorumluluk duygusu ve davranışı ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi güvenirliği ve geçerliği. Gümüshane University Electronic Journal of the Institute of Social Science, 4 (7), 343–356.
Park, C. L. (2010). Making sense of the meaning literature: An integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 136 , 257–301. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018301
Piri, Z., Majd, M. A., Bazzazyan, S., & ve Ghamari, M. (2018). The mediating role of coping strategies in relation with psychological needs and internet addiction among college student. International Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, 5 (3), 9–17. https://doi.org/10.22037/ijabs.v5i3.24194
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40 (3), 879–891.
Purwaningsih, E., & Nurmala, I. (2021). The impact of online game addiction on adolescent mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 9 (F), 260–274. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6234
Qiu, C., Liu, Q., Yu, C., Li, Z., & Nie, Y. (2022). The influence of meaning in life on children and adolescents’ problematic smartphone use: A three-wave multiple mediation model. Addictive Behaviors, 126 , 107199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107199
Rajab, A. M., Zaghloul, M. S., Enabi, S., Rajab, T. M., Al-Khani, A. M., Basalah, A., & Saquib, N. (2020). Gaming addiction and perceived stress among Saudi adolescents. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 11 , 100261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100261
Rigby, S., & Ryan, R. M. (2017). Time well spent? Motivation for entertainment media and its eudaimonic aspects through the lens of self-determination theory. L. Reinecke, M.B. Oliver (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of media use and well-being, international perspectives on theory and research on positive media effects (pp. 34–48). Routledge
Rigby, S., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Glued to games: How video games draw us in and hold us spellbound: How video games draw us in and hold us spellbound . AbC-CLIo.
Robinson, S. (2009). The nature of responsibility in a professional setting. Journal of Business Ethics, 88 (1), 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-009-0103-3
Rosendo-Rios, V., Trott, S., & Shukla, P. (2022). Systematic literature review online gaming addiction among children and young adults: A framework and research agenda. Addictive Behaviors, 129 , 107238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107238
Ruyter, D. D. (2002). The virtue of taking responsibility. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 34 (1), 25–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2002.tb00283.x
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The darker and brighter sides of human existence: Basic psychological needs as a unifying concept. Psychological Inquiry, 11 (4), 319–338. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_03
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness . Guilford Publications.
Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30 (4), 344–360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57 , 1069–1081. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1999
Sachdeva, A., & Verma, R. (2015). Internet gaming addiction: A technological hazard. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction, 4 (4), e26359. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.26359
Şata, M. (2020). Nicel araştırma yaklaşımları. Oğuz, E. (Eds.), Eğitimde araştırma yöntemleri içinde (p. 77–97). Eğiten Kitap Yayıncılık
Sela, Y., Zach, M., Amichay-Hamburger, Y., Mishali, M., & Omer, H. (2020). Family environment and problematic internet use among adolescents: The mediating roles of depression and fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 106 , 106226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.106226
Shahzadi, U., Koul, R. B., Haq, M. N. U., & Arshad, M. (2022). Attitude, behavior and responsibility to environmental literacy in education organization: A quantitative assessment. Indian Journal of Economics and Business, 21 (1), 709–716. http://www.ashwinanokha.com/IJEB.php
Shek, D. T., Dou, D., Zhu, X., & Chai, W. (2019). Positive youth development: Current perspectives. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 10 , 131–141. https://doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S179946
Shen, C. X., Liu, R. D., & Wang, D. (2013). Why are children attracted to the Internet? The role of need satisfaction perceived online and perceived in daily real life. Computers in Human Behavior, 29 (1), 185–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.08.004
Steger, M. F. (2012). Experiencing meaning in life. In P. T. P. Wong (Ed.), The human quest for meaning: Theories, research and applications (pp. 165–184). Taylor & Francis.
Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53 (1), 80–93. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0188.8.131.52
Subrahmanyam, K., & Šmahel, D. (2011). Constructing identity online: Identity exploration and self-presentation. In: Digital youth (pp. 59–80). Springer
Sun, R., Gao, Q., Xiang, Y., Chen, T., Liu, T., & Chen, Q. (2020). Parent–child relationships and mobile phone addiction tendency among Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of psychological needs satisfaction and the moderating role of peer relationships. Children and Youth Services Review, 116 , 105113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105113
Tamborini, R., Grizzard, M., Bowman, N. D., Reinecke, L., Lewis, R. J., & Eden, A. (2011). Media enjoyment as need satisfaction: The contribution of hedonic and nonhedonic needs. Journal of Communication, 61 (6), 1025–1042. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01593.x
Tanhan, F., & Özlem, A. (2015). Siber kimliklerin kişiliğe yansıması: Proteus etki (tanımı, nedenleri ve önlenmesi). Online Journal of Technology Addiction and Cyberbullying, 2 (2), 1–19.
Taylı, A. (2006). Akran yardımcılığı uygulaması aracılığıyla lise öğrencilerinde kişisel ve sosyal sorumluluğun arttırılması. [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Gazi Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Ankara
Taylı, A. (2013). Sorumluluğun bazı değişkenler açısından değerlendirilmesi. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 30, 68–84. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/musbed/issue/23302/248613
Tazegül, Ü. (2014). Sporun kişilik üzerindeki etkisinin araştırılması. Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 25 , 537–544.
Thatcher, A., Wretschko, G., & Fridjhon, P. (2008). Online flow experiences, problematic Internet use and Internet procrastination. Computers in Human Behavior, 24 (5), 2236–2254.
Turan, M. E. (2021). Empathy and video game addiction in adolescents: Serial mediation by psychological resilience and life satisfaction. International Journal of Progressive Education, 17 (4), 282–296. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2021.366.17
Wang, Q., Luo, X., Tu, R., Xiao, T., & Hu, W. (2022). COVID-19 information overload and cyber aggression during the pandemic lockdown: The mediating role of depression/anxiety and the moderating role of Confucian responsibility thinking. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (3), 1540. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031540
Wartberg, L., Kriston, L., & Kammerl, R. (2017). Associations of social support, friends only known through the internet, and health-related quality of life with internet gaming disorder in adolescence. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20 (7), 436–441. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2016.0535
Wei, H. T., Chen, M. H., Huang, P. C., & Bai, Y. M. (2012). The association between online gaming, social phobia, and depression: An internet survey. BMC Psychiatry, 12 (1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-12-92
Weinstein, N., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2012). Motivation, meaning, and wellness: A self-determination perspective on the creation and internalization of personal meanings and life goals. In P. T. P. Wong (Ed.), The human quest for meaning (pp. 127–152). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203146286-13
Chapter Google Scholar
Widyanto, L., & Griffiths, M. (2006). Internet addiction: A critical review. International Journal Mental Health and Addiction, 4 , 31–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-006-9009-9
Wong, P. T. (2010). The PURE way for a better marriage . International Network on Personal Meaning.
Wong, P. T. P. (2019). What is the greatest need today? Responsibility is the key to surviving and thriving in dangerous times . Retrieved from: http://www.drpaulwong.com/what-is-the-greatest-need-todayresponsibility-is-the-key-to-surviving-and-thriving-in-dangerous-times/ . Accessed 30 Nov 2022
Wongpakaran, N., Wongpakaran, T., Pinyopornpanish, M., Simcharoen, S., & Kuntawong, P. (2021). Loneliness and problematic internet use: Testing the role of interpersonal problems and motivation for internet use. BMC Psychiatry, 21 (1), 447. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03457-y
World Health Organization (2019). International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Groups that were involved in ICD-11 Revision Process . Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/standards/classifications/classification-of-diseases . Accessed 30 Nov 2022
Wray-Lake, L., & Syvertsen, A. K. (2011). The developmental roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2011 (134), 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.308
Wu, A. M., Lei, L. L., & Ku, L. (2013). Psychological needs, purpose in life, and problem video game playing among Chinese young adults. International Journal of Psychology, 48 (4), 583–590. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2012.658057
Xiao, X., & Zheng, X. (2022). The effect of parental phubbing on depression in Chinese junior high school students: The mediating roles of basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-esteem. Frontiers in Psychology, 13 , 868354. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.868354
Yalom, I. D. (2020). Existential psychotherapy . Hachette UK.
Yang, J., Ti, Y., & Ye, Y. (2022). Offline and online social support and short-form video addiction among Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of emotion suppression and relatedness needs. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 25 (5), 316–322. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2021.0323
Yee, N. (2006). Motivations for play in online games. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9 (6), 772–775. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9.772
Yıkılmaz, M., & Demir-Güdül, M. (2015). Üniversite öğrencilerinde yaşam doyumu, yaşamda anlam ve bilinçli farkındalık arasındaki ilişkiler. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 16 (2), 297–315. https://doi.org/10.12984/eed.09530
Yıldırım, E., & Zeren, Ş. G. (2021). Video game addiction in Turkey: Does it correlate between basic psychological needs and perceived social support? Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 10 (2), 106–117. From: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1311681
Yough, M., Gilmetdinova, A., & Finney, E. (2022). Teaching the English language learner at the elementary school: Sense of responsibility in an ill-defined role. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 21 (2), 99–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2020.1791707
Young, K. S., & Rodgers, R. C. (2009). The relationship between depression and internetaddiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1 (1), 25–28. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.1998.1.25
Young, K. S. (2009). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior , 11, 237–244. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237
Young-Ju, J., Ae-Kyung, C., Jeong-Jin, K., & ve Min-Yeong, L. (2018). Identification of the structural relationship of basic psychological needs and Facebook addiction and continuance. Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication, 16 (1), 183–191. https://doi.org/10.7236/JIIBC.2016.16.1.183
Yu, C., Li, X., & Zhang, W. (2015). Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: A 2-year longitudinal study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18 (4), 228–233. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2014.0385
Zeren, ŞG., & ve Can, S. (2019). Ergenlerin akademik erteleme davranışlarını açıklamada internet bağımlığı ve temel psikolojik ihtiyaçların rolü. Çukurova Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 48 (2), 1012–1040.
Zhang, M. X., Wang, X., Shu, M. Y., & Wu, A. M. (2019). Purpose in life, social support, and internet gaming disorder among Chinese university students: A 1-year follow-up study. Addictive Behaviors, 99 , 106070. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106070
Zhang, S., Feng, R., Fu, Y. N., Liu, Q., He, Y., Turel, O., & He, Q. (2022). The bidirectional relationship between basic psychological needs and meaning in life: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 197 , 111784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111784
Zhao, H., Li, X., Zhou, J., Nie, Q., & Zhou, J. (2020). The relationship between bullying victimization and online game addiction among Chinese early adolescents: The potential role of meaning in life and gender differences. Children and Youth Services Review, 116 , 105261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105261
We are grateful to the individuals all participants who participated in this study.
Authors and affiliations.
Department of Guidance and Psychological Counselling, Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Ağrı, Turkey
Department of Guidance and Psychological Counselling, Siirt University, Siirt, Turkey
Department of Guidance and Psychological Counselling, Sakarya University PhD Student, Sakarya, Turkey
International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, 50 Shakespeare Street, Nottingham, NG1 4FQ, UK
Mark D. Griffiths
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
Study conception/design: AK, HB, NT, and MDG. Data collection: AK, HB, and NT. analysis: AK and HB. Drafting of manuscript: AK, HB, NT, and MDG. Editing: MDG. Statistical expertise: AK and HB. Administrative/technical/material support: HB and HYK.
Correspondence to Mark D. Griffiths .
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of University’s Research Ethics Board and with the 1975 Helsinki Declaration.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no competing interests except for MDG. MDG’s university has received research funding from Norsk Tipping (the gambling operator owned by the Norwegian Government). MDG has also received funding for a number of research projects in the area of gambling education for young people, social responsibility in gambling and gambling treatment from Gamble Aware (formerly the Responsible Gambling Trust) , a charitable body which funds its research program based on donations from the gambling industry. MDG regularly undertakes consultancy for various gambling companies in the area of player protection and social responsibility in gambling.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ .
Reprints and Permissions
About this article
Kaya, A., Türk, N., Batmaz, H. et al. Online Gaming Addiction and Basic Psychological Needs Among Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Meaning in Life and Responsibility. Int J Ment Health Addiction (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-022-00994-9
Accepted : 15 December 2022
Published : 10 January 2023
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-022-00994-9
Share this article
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.
Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative
- Basic psychological needs
- Online gaming addiction
- Meaning in life
- Find a journal
- Publish with us
Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.
To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser .
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
EFFECTS OF ONLINE GAME ADDICTION TO THE STUDENTS OF
Research Journal of Life Science
International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations
Journal of Korea Game Society
JOO YEUN HAN
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Phi Delta Kappan
Current Addiction Reports
International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences
2016 SAI Computing Conference (SAI)
People also looked at
Original research article, the effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation among chinese college students: the mediating role of learning engagement.
- 1 BinZhou College of Science and Technology, Binzhou, China
- 2 Binzhou Polytechnic, Binzhou, China
- 3 Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
- 4 National Institute of Vocational Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
Introduction: The present study aimed to examine the effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation, and the mediating role of learning engagement among Chinese college students to investigate the relationships between the three variables.
Methods: The study used convenience sampling to recruit Chinese university students to participate voluntarily. A total of 443 valid questionnaires were collected through the Questionnaire Star application. The average age of the participants was 18.77 years old, with 157 males and 286 females. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS.
Results: (1) Chinese college students’ online game addiction negatively affected their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement (the three dimensions of learning engagement); (2) behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement negatively affected their reduced academic achievement motivation; (3) learning engagement mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.
Online games, along with improvements in technology, have entered the daily life of college students through the popularity of computers, smartphones, PSPs (PlayStation Portable), and other gaming devices. Online game addiction has recently become a critical problem affecting college students’ studies and lives. As early as 2018, online game addiction was officially included in the category of “addictive mental disorders” by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was updated specifically to include the category of “Internet Gaming Disorder” (IGD). Prior research investigating Chinese college students’ online game addiction status mostly comprised regional small-scale studies. For example, a study on 394 college students in Chengde City, Hebei province, China showed that the rate of online game addiction was about 9% ( Cui et al., 2021 ). According to the results of an online game survey conducted by China Youth Network (2019) on 682 Chinese college students who played online games, nearly 60% of participants played games for more than 1 h a day, over 30% stayed up late because of playing games, over 40% thought that playing games had affected their physical health, over 70% claimed that games did not affect their studies, and over 60% had spent money on online games. This phenomenon has been exacerbated by the fact that smartphones and various portable gaming devices have become new vehicles for gaming with the development of technology. The increase in the frequency or time spent on daily gaming among adolescents implies a growth in the probability of gaming addiction, while an increase in the level of education decreases the probability of gaming addiction ( Esposito et al., 2020 ; Kesici, 2020 ). Moreover, during the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents’ video game use and the severity of online gaming disorders increased significantly ( Teng et al., 2021 ).
A large body of literature on the relationship between problematic smartphone use and academic performance has illustrated the varying adverse effects of excessive smartphone obsession ( Durak, 2018 ; Mendoza et al., 2018 ; Rozgonjuk et al., 2018 ). These effects are manifested in three critical ways: first, the more frequently cell phones are used during study, the greater the negative impact on academic performance and achievement; second, students are required to master the basic skills and cognitive abilities to succeed academically, which are negatively affected by excessive cell phone use and addiction ( Sunday et al., 2021 ); third, online game addiction negatively affects students’ learning motivation ( Demir and Kutlu, 2018 ; Eliyani and Sari, 2021 ). However, there is currently a lack of scientifically objective means of effective data collection regarding online game addiction among college students in China, such as big data. Hong R. Z. et al. (2021) and Nong et al. (2023) suggested that the impact of addiction on students’ learning should be explored more deeply.
Since the 1990s, learning engagement has been regarded as a positive behavioral practice in learning in Europe and the United States, and plays an important role in the field of higher education research ( Axelson and Flick, 2010 ). Recently, studies on learning engagement among college students have also been a hot topic in various countries ( Guo et al., 2021 ). According to Fredricks et al. (2004) , learning engagement includes three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive.
The concept of behavioral engagement encompasses three aspects: first, positive behavior in the classroom, such as following school rules and regulations and classroom norms; second, engagement in learning; and third, active participation in school activities ( Finn et al., 1995 ). Emotional engagement refers to students’ responses to their academic content and learning environment. The emotional responses to academic content include students’ emotional responses such as interest or disinterest in learning during academic activities ( Kahu and Nelson, 2018 ), while the emotional responses to the learning environment refer to students’ identification with their peers, teachers, and the school environment ( Stipek, 2002 ). Cognitive engagement is often associated with internal processes such as deep processing, using cognitive strategies, self-regulation, investment in learning, the ability to think reflectively, and making connections in daily life ( Khan et al., 2017 ). Cognitive engagement emphasizes the student’s investment in learning and self-regulation or strategies.
According to Yang X. et al. (2021) , learning engagement refers to students’ socialization, behavioral intensity, affective qualities, and use of cognitive strategies in performing learning activities. Besides, Kuh et al. (2007) argued that learning engagement was “the amount of time and effort students devote to instructional goals and meaningful educational practices.” Learning engagement is not only an important indicator of students’ learning process, but also a significant predictor of students’ academic achievement ( Zhang, 2012 ). It is also an essential factor in promoting college students’ academic success and improving education quality.
As one of the crucial components of students’ learning motivation ( Han and Lu, 2018 ), achievement motivation is the driving force behind an individual’s efforts to put energy into what he or she perceives to be valuable and meaningful to achieve a desired outcome ( Story et al., 2009 ). It can be considered as achievement motivation when an individual’s behavior involves “competing at a standard of excellence” ( Brunstein and Heckhausen, 2018 ). Students’ achievement motivation ensures the continuity of learning activities, achieving academic excellence and desired goals ( Sopiah, 2021 ). Based on the concept of achievement motivation, academic achievement motivation refers to the mental perceptions or intentions that students carry out regarding their academic achievement, a cognitive structure by which students perceive success or failure and determine their behavior ( Elliot and Church, 1997 ). Related research also suggests that motivation is one variable that significantly predicts learning engagement ( Xiong et al., 2015 ).
Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the internal influence mechanism of college students’ online game addiction on their reduced academic achievement motivation and the role of learning engagement, which is also an issue that cannot be ignored in higher education research. The present study explored the relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation among college students by establishing a structural equation model (SEM) to shed light on the problem of online game addiction among college students.
2. Research model and hypotheses
2.1. research model.
Previous research usually regarded learning engagement as a variable of one or two dimensions, and scholars tend to favor the dimension of behavioral engagement. However, other ignored dimensions are inseparable parts of learning engagement ( Dincer et al., 2019 ). In a multi-dimensional model, the mutual terms of each dimension form a single composite structure. Therefore, the present study took the structure proposed by Fredricks et al. (2004) as a reference, divided learning engagement into behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions as mediating variables, and explored the relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation. The research frame diagram is shown in Figure 1 .
Figure 1 . The research model.
2.2. Research questions
2.2.1. the relationship between online game addiction and learning engagement.
Learning engagement has been viewed as a multidimensional concept in previous studies. Finn (1989) proposed the participation-identification model to make pioneering progress in learning engagement study. Schaufeli et al. (2002) suggested that learning engagement was an active, fulfilling mental state associated with learning. Chapman (2002) pointed out affective, behavioral, and cognitive criteria for assessing students’ learning engagement based on previous research. Fredricks et al. (2004) systematically outlined learning engagement as an integration of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement. The updated International Classification of Diseases [ World Health Organization (WHO), 2018a , b ] specifies several diagnostic criteria for gaming addiction, including the abandonment of other activities, the loss of interest in other previous hobbies, and the loss or potential loss of work and social interaction because of gaming. Past studies have shown the adverse effects of excessive Internet usage on students’ learning. Short video addiction negatively affects intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation ( Ye et al., 2022 ). Students’ cell phone addiction negatively affects academic commitment, academic performance, and relationship facilitation, all of which negatively affect their academic achievement ( Tian et al., 2021 ). The amount of time spent surfing the Internet and playing games has been identified to negatively affect students’ cognitive ability ( Pan et al., 2022 ). College students’ cell phone addiction, mainly reflected in cell phone social addiction and game entertainment addiction, has also been noted to impact learning engagement; specifically, the higher the level of addiction, the lower the learning engagement ( Qi et al., 2020 ). Gao et al. (2021) also showed that cell phone addiction among college students could negatively affect their learning engagement. Choi (2019) showed that excessive use of cell phones might contribute to smartphone addiction, which also affects students’ learning engagement. Accordingly, the following three research hypotheses were proposed.
H1 : Online game addiction negatively affects behavioral engagement.
H2 : Online game addiction negatively affects emotional engagement.
H3 : Online game addiction negatively affects cognitive engagement.
2.2.2. The relationship between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation
Achievement motivation is people’s pursuit of maximizing individual value, which embodies an innate drive, including the need for achievement, and can be divided into two parts: the intention to succeed and the intention to avoid failure ( McClelland et al., 1976 ). On this basis, Weiner (1985) proposed the attributional theory of achievement motivation, suggesting that individuals’ personality differences, as well as the experience of success and failure, could influence their achievement attributions and that an individual’s previous achievement attributions would affect his or her expectations and emotions for the subsequent achievement behavior while expectations and emotions could guide motivated behavior. Birch and Ladd (1997) indicated that behavioral engagement involved positive behavioral attitudes such as hard work, persistence, concentration, willingness to ask questions, and active participation in class discussions to complete class assignments. Students’ attitudes toward learning are positively related to achievement motivation ( Bakar et al., 2010 ). Emotional engagement involves students’ sense of identity with their peers, teachers, and the school environment ( Stipek, 2002 ). Students’ perceptions of the school environment influence their achievement motivation ( Wang and Eccles, 2013 ). Cognitive engagement encompasses the ability to use cognitive strategies, self-regulation, investment in learning, and reflective thinking ( Khan et al., 2017 ). Learning independence and problem-solving abilities predict student motivation ( Saeid and Eslaminejad, 2017 ). Hu et al. (2021) indicated that cognitive engagement had the most significant effect on students’ academic achievement among the learning engagement dimensions, and that emotional engagement was also an important factor influencing students’ academic achievement. Therefore, the following three research hypotheses were proposed:
H4 : Behavioral engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.
H5 : Emotional engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.
H6 : Cognitive engagement significantly and negatively affects the reduced academic achievement motivation.
2.2.3. The relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation
Past studies have demonstrated the relationship between online game addiction and students’ achievement motivation. For example, a significant negative correlation between social network addiction and students’ motivation to progress has been reported ( Haji Anzehai, 2020 ), and a significant negative correlation between Internet addiction and students’ achievement motivation has been reported ( Cao et al., 2008 ). Students addicted to online games generally have lower academic achievement motivation because they lack precise academic planning and motivation ( Chen and Gu, 2019 ). Yayman and Bilgin (2020) pointed out a correlation between social media addiction and online game addiction. Accordingly, there might be a negative correlation between online game addiction and academic achievement motivation among college students.
Students addicted to online games generally have lower motivation for academic achievement because they lack precise academic planning and learning motivation ( Chen and Gu, 2019 ). Similarly, Haji Anzehai (2020) reported a significant negative correlation between social network addiction and students’ motivation to progress.
Learning engagement is often explored as a mediating variable in education research. Zhang et al. (2018) found that learning engagement was an essential mediator of the negative effect of internet addiction on academic achievement in late adolescence and is a key factor in the decline in academic achievement due to students’ internet addiction. Li et al. (2019) noted that college students’ social networking site addiction significantly negatively affected their learning engagement, and learning engagement mediated the relationship between social networking addiction and academic achievement. Accordingly, the following research hypothesis was proposed.
H7 : Learning engagement mediates the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.
3. Research methodology and design
3.1. survey implementation.
The present study employed the Questionnaire Star application for online questionnaire distribution. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit Chinese college students to participate voluntarily. The data were collected from October 2021 to January 2022 from a higher vocational college in Shandong province, China. Participants were first-and second-year students. According to Shumacker and Lomax (2016) , the number of participants in SEM studies should be approximately between 100 and 500 or more. In the present study, 500 questionnaires were returned, and 443 were valid after excluding invalid responses. The mean age of the participants was 18.77 years. There were 157 male students, accounting for 35.4% of the total sample, and 286 female students, accounting for 64.6%.
3.2. Measurement instruments
The present empirical study employed quantitative research methods by collecting questionnaires for data analysis. The items of questionnaires were adapted from research findings based on corresponding theories and were reviewed by experts to confirm the content validity of the instruments. The distributed questionnaire was a Likert 5-point scale (1 for strongly disagree , 2 for disagree , 3 for average , 4 for agree , and 5 for strongly agree ). After the questionnaire was collected, item analysis was conducted first, followed by reliability and validity analysis of the questionnaire constructs using SPSS23 to test whether the scale met the criteria. Finally, research model validation was conducted.
3.2.1. Online game addiction
In the present study, online game addiction referred to the addictive behavior of college students in online games, including mobile games and online games. The present study adopted a game addiction scale compiled by Wu et al. (2021) and adapted the items based on the definition of online game addiction. The adapted scale had 10 items. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale were: “I will put down what should be done and spend my time playing online games” and “My excitement or expectation of playing an online game is far better than other interpersonal interactions.”
3.2.2. Learning engagement
In the present study, learning engagement included students’ academic engagement in three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive. The learning engagement scale compiled by Luan et al. (2020) was adapted based on its definition. The adapted scale had 26 questions in three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale are: “I like to actively explore unfamiliar things when I am doing my homework” and “I will remind myself to double-check the places where I tend to make mistakes in my homework.”
3.2.3. Reduced academic achievement motivation
Reduced academic achievement motivation in the present study refers to the reduction in college students’ intrinsic tendency to enjoy challenges and achieve academic goals and academic success. The achievement motivation scale developed by Ye et al. (2020) was adapted to measure reduced academic achievement motivation. The adapted scale had 10 items. Two examples of the adapted items in the scale are: “Since playing online games, I do not believe that the effectiveness of learning is up to me, but that it depends on other people or the environment” and “Since I often play online games, I am satisfied with my current academic performance or achievement and do not seek higher academic challenges.”
4. Results and discussion
4.1. internal validity analysis of the measurement instruments.
In the present study, item analysis was conducted using first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which can reflect the degree of measured variables’ performance within a smaller construct ( Hafiz and Shaari, 2013 ). The first-order CFA is based on the streamlined model and the principle of independence of residuals. According to Hair et al. (2010) and Kenny et al. (2015) , it is recommended that the value of χ 2 / df in the model fitness indices should be less than 5; the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value should be greater than 0.100; the values of the goodness of fit index (GFI) and adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) should not be lower than 0.800; the factor loading (FL) values of the constructs should also be greater than 0.500. Based on the criteria above, the items measuring the online game addiction construct were reduced from 10 to seven; the items measuring the behavioral engagement construct were reduced from nine to six; the items measuring the emotional engagement construct were reduced from nine to six; the items measuring the cognitive engagement construct were reduced from eight to six; and the items measuring the reduced academic achievement motivation construct was reduced from 10 to six, as shown in Table 1 .
Table 1 . First-order confirmatory factor analysis.
4.2. Construct reliability and validity analysis
In order to determine the internal consistency of the constructs, the reliability of the questionnaire was tested using Cronbach’ s α value. According to Hair et al. (2010) , a Cronbach’ s α value greater than 0.700 indicates an excellent internal consistency among the items, and the constructs’ composite reliability (CR) values should exceed 0.700 to meet the criteria. In the present study, the Cronbach’ s α values for the constructs ranged from 0.911 to 0.960, and the CR values ranged from 0.913 to 0.916, which met the criteria, as shown in Table 2 .
Table 2 . Construct reliability and validity of constructs.
In the present study, convergent validity was confirmed by two types of indicators, FL and average variance extracted (AVE). According to Hair et al. (2011) , an FL value should be greater than 0.500, and items with an FL value less than 0.500 should be removed; and AVE values should be greater than 0.500. In the present study, the FL values of the constructs ranged from 0.526 to 0.932, and the AVE values ranged from 0.600 to 0.805; all dimensions met the recommended criteria, as shown in Table 2 .
According to Awang (2015) and Hair et al. (2011) , the square root of the AVE of each construct (latent variable) should be greater than its correlation coefficient values with other constructs to indicate the ideal discriminant validity. The results of the present study showed that the three constructs of online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation had good discriminant validity in the present study, as shown in Table 3 .
Table 3 . Discriminant validity analysis.
4.3. Correlation analysis
Pearson’s correlation coefficient is usually used to determine the closeness of the relationship between variables. A correlation coefficient greater than 0.8 indicates a high correlation between variables; a correlation coefficient between 0.3 and 0.8 indicates a moderate correlation between variables; while a correlation of less than 0.3 indicates a low correlation. Table 4 shows the Correlation Analysis results. Online game addiction was moderately negatively correlated with behavioral engagement ( r = −0.402, p < 0.001), moderately negatively correlated with emotional engagement ( r = −0.352, p < 0.001), slightly negatively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r = −0.288, p < 0.001), and slightly positively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r = 0.295, p < 0.001). Behavioral engagement was moderately positively correlated with emotional engagement ( r = 0.696, p < 0.001), moderately positively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r = 0.601, p < 0.001), and moderately negatively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r = −0.497, p < 0.001). Emotional engagement was moderately positively correlated with cognitive engagement ( r = 0.787, p < 0.001) and moderately negatively correlated with reduced academic achievement motivation ( r = −0.528, p < 0.001). Cognitive engagement was moderately negatively correlated with reduced motivation for academic achievement ( r = −0.528, p < 0.001).
Table 4 . Correlation analysis.
4.4. Analysis of fitness of the measurement model
According to Hair et al. (2010) and Abedi et al. (2015) , the following criteria should be met in the analysis for measurement model fitness: the ratio of chi-squared and degree of freedom ( χ 2 / df ) should be less than 5; the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) should not exceed 0.100; the goodness of fit index (GFI), adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI), normed fit index (NFI), non-normed fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI) and relative fit index (RFI) should be higher than 0.800; and the parsimonious normed fit index (PNFI) and the parsimonious fitness of fit index (PGFI) should be higher than 0.500. The model fitness indices in the present study were χ 2 = 1434.8, df = 428, χ 2 / df = 3.352, RMSEA = 0.073, GFI = 0.837, AGFI = 0.811, NFI = 0.899, NNFI = 0.920, CFI = 0.927, IFI = 0.927, RFI = 0.890, PNFI = 0.827, and PGFI = 0.722. The results were in accordance with the criteria, indicating a good fitness of the model in the present study ( Table 5 ).
Table 5 . Direct effects analysis.
4.5. Validation of the research model
Online game addiction had a negative effect on behavioral engagement ( β = −0.486; t = −9.143; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a negative effect on emotional engagement ( β = −0.430; t = −8.054; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a negative effect on cognitive engagement ( β = −0.370; t = −7.180; p < 0.001). Online game addiction had a positive effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β = 0.19; t = −2.776; p < 0.01). Behavioral engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β = −0.238; t = −3.759; p < 0.001). Emotional engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β = −0.221; t = −2.687; p < 0.01), and cognitive engagement had a negative effect on reduced academic achievement motivation ( β = −0.265; t = −3.581; p < 0.01), as shown in Figure 2 Table 6 .
Figure 2 . Validation of the research model. *** p < 0.001.
Table 6 . Indirect effects analysis.
Cohen’ s f 2 is an uncommon but valuable standardized effect size measure that can be used to assess the size of local effects ( Selya et al., 2012 ). When f 2 reaches 0.02 it represents a small effect size, 0.150 represents a medium effect size, and 0.350 represents a high effect size ( Hair et al., 2014 ). The explanatory power of online game addiction on behavioral engagement was 23.6%, and f 2 was 0.309. The explanatory power of online game addiction on emotional engagement was 18.5%, and f 2 was 0.227. The explanatory power of online game addiction on cognitive engagement was 13.7%, and f 2 was 0.159. The explanatory power of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement on reduced academic achievement motivation was 23.9%, and f 2 was 0.314. Figure 2 illustrates the above findings.
4.6. Indirect effects analysis
Scholars are often interested in whether variables mediate the association between predicting and outcome variables. Therefore, mediating variables can partially or entirely explain the association ( Hwang et al., 2019 ). In research fields such as psychology and behavior, where the research situation is often more complex, multiple mediating variables are often required to clearly explain the effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables ( MacKinnon, 2012 ). Scientific quantitative research requires tests of confidence interval (CI; Thompson, 2002 ), and the standard value of the test numbers is often determined by 95% CI ( Altman and Bland, 2011 ). CI value not containing 0 indicates the statistical significance of the analysis results ( Nakagawa and Cuthill, 2007 ). According to the statistical results shown in Table 4 , behavioral engagement significantly positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.230 and 95% CI ranging from 0.150 to 0.300 (excluding 0), p < 0.01; emotional engagement positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.209, 95% CI ranging from 0.130 to 0.292 (excluding 0), p < 0.01; cognitive engagement positively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation with a path coefficient of 0.170, 95% CI ranging from 0.100 to 0.250 (excluding 0), p < 0.01, as shown in Table 6 .
4.7.1. analysis of the relationship between online game addiction and learning engagement.
Online game addiction is often negatively associated with students’ learning. For example, the problematic use of short videos was reported as negatively affecting students’ behavioral engagement, while behavioral engagement positively affected students’ emotional and cognitive engagement ( Ye et al., 2023 ). Meral (2019) highlighted that students’ learning attitudes and academic performance had a negative relationship with students’ addiction to online games. Demir and Kutlu (2018) found that online game addiction negatively affects students’ learning motivation. As the level of students’ game addiction increased, the level of their communication skills decreased ( Kanat, 2019 ). Furthermore, Tsai et al. (2020) pointed out a negative correlation between online game addiction and peer relationships as well as students’ learning attitudes. According to the results of the research model validation, it can be observed that: online game addiction negatively affected behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and cognitive engagement. Therefore, it can be stated that online game addiction had significant and negative effects on all dimensions of learning engagement.
Online game addiction in the present study included aspects of computer game addiction and mobile phone game addiction. The results of the present study are consistent with the findings of Gao et al. (2021) , Choi (2019) , and Qi et al. (2020) , who pointed out that college students’ addiction to cell phones negatively affected their learning engagement.
4.7.2. Analysis of the relationship between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation
For technology education in higher education, students’ intrinsic motivation for academic study predicts their learning engagement ( Dunn and Kennedy, 2019 ). In addition, learning engagement is positively correlated with academic achievement ( Fredricks and McColskey, 2012 ). Based on the research model validation results, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement all negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation. The findings are consistent with Hu et al.’s (2021) study which pointed out that cognitive engagement in the learning engagement dimension had the most significant effect on students’ academic achievement, and that emotional engagement was also an essential factor influencing students’ academic achievement. Lau et al. (2008) showed that achievement motivation positively predicted cognitive engagement in the learning engagement dimension. Mih et al. (2015) noted that achievement motivation positively predicted behavioral and emotional engagement in the learning engagement dimension. The present study supported the above discussion by confirming the association between learning engagement and reduced academic achievement motivation.
4.7.3. Analysis of the mediating role of learning engagement
According to the indirect effects analysis results of the present study, learning engagement negatively mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation. The findings support Haji Anzehai’s (2020) conclusion that social network addiction negatively correlated with students’ motivation to progress ( Haji Anzehai, 2020 ). It is also consistent with the findings of Chen and Gu (2019) that students addicted to online games generally had lower academic achievement motivation due to a lack of precise academic planning and motivation. Cao et al. (2008) found a significant negative correlation between Internet addiction and students’ achievement motivation. Similarly, Zhang et al. (2018) explored the intrinsic influencing mechanism of students’ Internet addiction on academic achievement decline in their late adolescence by identifying learning engagement as the important mediating variable. Li et al. (2019) proposed that social networking site addiction among college students significantly negatively affected learning engagement and that learning engagement mediated the relationship between social network addiction and students’ academic achievement. The present study findings also support the discussion above.
5. Conclusion and suggestions
Currently, the problem of online game addiction among college students is increasing. The relationship between online game addiction, learning engagement, and reduced academic achievement motivation still needs to be explored. The present study explored the relationships between the three aforementioned variables by performing SEM. The results of the study indicated that: (1) online game addiction negatively affected behavioral engagement; (2) online game addiction negatively affected emotional engagement; (3) online game addiction negatively affected cognitive engagement; (4) behavioral engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (5) emotional engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (6) cognitive behavioral engagement negatively affected reduced academic achievement motivation; (7) learning engagement mediated the relationship between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation.
According to the research results, when college students are addicted to online games, their learning engagement can be affected, which may decrease their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement; their academic achievement motivation may be further reduced and affect their academic success or even prevent them from completing their studies. The mediating role of learning engagement between online game addiction and reduced academic achievement motivation indicates that reduced academic achievement motivation influenced by online game addiction could be prevented or weakened by enhancing learning engagement.
Universities and families play a crucial role in preventing online game addiction among college students. One of the main reasons college students play online games may be that they lack an understanding of other leisure methods and can only relieve their psychological pressure through online games ( Fan and Gai, 2022 ). Therefore, universities should enrich college students’ after-school leisure life and help them cultivate healthy hobbies and interests. Besides, a harmonious parent–child relationship positively affects children’s learning engagement ( Shao and Kang, 2022 ). Parents’ stricter demands may aggravate children’s game addiction ( Baturay and Toker, 2019 ). Therefore, parents should assume a proper perspective on the rationality of gaming and adopt the right approach to guide their children.
One key factor influencing the quality of higher education is students’ learning engagement. The integration of educational information technology has disrupted traditional teaching methods. This trend has accelerated in the context of COVID-19. College students’ growth mindset can impact their learning engagement through the role of the perceived COVID-19 event strength and perceived stress ( Zhao et al., 2021 ). Moreover, students’ self-regulated learning and social presence positively affect their learning engagement in online contexts ( Miao and Ma, 2022 ). Students’ liking of the teacher positively affects their learning engagement ( Lu et al., 2022 ). Their perceived teacher support also positively affects their learning engagement ( An et al., 2022 ). Hence, educators should focus on teacher support and care in the teaching and learning process.
Students’ motivation for academic achievement can often be influenced by active interventions. Cheng et al. (2022) noted that the cumulative process of students gaining successful experiences contributed to an increased sense of self-efficacy, motivating them to learn. Zhou (2009) illustrated that cooperative learning motivated students’ academic achievement. In addition, Hong J. C. et al. (2021) showed that poor parent–child relationships (such as the behavior of “mama’ s boy” in adults) had a negative impact on students’ academic achievement motivation, and they concluded that cell phone addiction was more pronounced among students with low academic achievement motivation. Hence, enhancing students’ academic achievement motivation also requires family support.
5.3. Research limitations and suggestions for future research
Most of the past studies on the impact of online game addiction on academics have used quantitative research as the research method. The qualitative research approach regarding students’ online game addiction should not be neglected. By collecting objective factual materials in the form of qualitative research such as interviews a greater understanding of students’ actual views on games and the psychological factors of addiction can be achieved. Therefore, future studies could introduce more qualitative research to study online game addiction.
To pay attention to the problem of students’ online game addiction, universities and families should not wait until they become addicted and try to remedy it, but should start to prevent it before it gets to that stage. In terms of developing students’ personal psychological qualities, students’ sensation-seeking and loneliness can significantly affect their tendency to become addicted to online games ( Batmaz and Çelik, 2021 ). Adolescents’ pain intolerance problems can also contribute to Internet overuse ( Gu, 2022 ). Emotion-regulation methods affect the emotional experience and play a vital role in Internet addiction ( Liang et al., 2021 ). In this regard, it is necessary to pay attention to students’ mental health status and to guide them to establish correct values and pursue goals through psychological guidance and other means.
In addition to individual factors, different parenting can considerably impact adolescents. Adolescents who tend to experience more developmental assets are less likely to develop IGD ( Xiang et al., 2022a ), and external resources can facilitate the development of internal resources, discouraging adolescents from engaging in IGD ( Xiang et al., 2022b ). Relevant research indicates that the most critical factor in adolescents’ game addiction tendency comes from society or their parents rather than being the adolescents’ fault ( Choi et al., 2018 ). Adolescents who tend to be addicted to online games may have discordant parent–child relationships ( Eliseeva and Krieger, 2021 ). Better father-child and mother–child relationships predict lower initial levels of Internet addiction in adolescents ( Shek et al., 2019 ). Family-based approaches such as improved parent–child relationships and increased communication and understanding among family members can be a direction for adolescent Internet addiction prevention ( Yu and Shek, 2013 ).
At the school level, a close teacher-student relationship is one of the main factors influencing students’ psychological state. Students’ participation in and control over the teaching and learning process as well as their closeness to teachers can increase their satisfaction and thus enhance their learning-related well-being ( Yang J. et al., 2021 ). More school resources can lead to higher adolescent self-control, attenuating students’ online gaming disorders ( Xiang et al., 2022c ).
Data availability statement
The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.
Ethical review and approval was not required for the study on human participants in accordance with the local legislation and institutional requirements. Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. Written informed consent was not obtained from the individual(s) for the publication of any potentially identifiable images or data included in this article.
R-QS, and J-HY: concept and design and drafting of the manuscript. R-QS, and J-HY: acquisition of data and statistical analysis. G-FS, and J-HY: critical revision of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.
This work was supported by Beijing Normal University First-Class Discipline Cultivation Project for Educational Science (Grant number: YLXKPY-XSDW202211). The Project Name is “Research on Theoretical Innovation and Institutional System of Promoting the Modernization of Vocational Education with Modern Chinese Characteristics”.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
Abedi, G., Rostami, F., and Nadi, A. (2015). Analyzing the dimensions of the quality of life in hepatitis B patients using confirmatory factor analysis. Global J. Health Sci. 7, 22–31. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n7p22
PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar
Altman, D. G., and Bland, J. M. (2011). How to obtain the confidence interval from a p value. Br. Med. J. 2011:343. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2090
CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar
An, F., Yu, J., and Xi, L. (2022). Relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement among adolescents: mediation role of technology acceptance and learning motivation. Front. Psychol. 13:992464. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.992464
Awang, Z. (2015). SEM made simple, a gentle approach to learning structural equation modeling . MPWS Rich Publication. Bangi.
Axelson, R. D., and Flick, A. (2010). Defining student engagement. Change 43, 38–43. doi: 10.1080/00091383.2011.533096
Bakar, K. A., Tarmizi, R. A., Mahyuddin, R., Elias, H., Luan, W. S., and Ayub, A. F. M. (2010). Relationships between university students’ achievement motivation, attitude and academic performance in Malaysia. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 2, 4906–4910. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.793
Batmaz, H., and Çelik, E. (2021). Examining the online game addiction level in terms of sensation seeking and loneliness in university students. Addicta 8, 126–130. doi: 10.5152/ADDICTA.2021.21017
Baturay, M. H., and Toker, S. (2019). Internet addiction among college students: some causes and effects. Educ. Inf. Technol. 24, 2863–2885. doi: 10.1007/s10639-019-09894-3
Birch, S., and Ladd, G. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and children’s early school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology 35, 61–79. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4405(96)00029-5
Brunstein, J. C., and Heckhausen, H. (2018). “Achievement motivation,” in Motivation and action . eds. J. Heckhausen and H. Heckhausen (New York, NY: Springer), 221–304.
Cao, H., Cao, P., Wang, P., and Wang, X. H. (2008). An exploration of the interrelationship between internet addiction and achievement motivation among middle school students. J. Beijing Youth Polit. College 2008, 31–38.
Chapman, E. (2002). Alternative approaches to assessing student engagement rates. Pract. Assess. Res. Eval. 8:13. doi: 10.7275/3e6e-8353
Chen, C. G., and Gu, X. Q. (2019). The impact of online games on students’ subject literacy and social inclusion - an analysis based on PISA 2015 test data from four Chinese provinces and cities. Open Educat. Res. 25, 73–87. doi: 10.13966/j.cnki.kfjyyj.2019.05.008
Cheng, B. J., Chen, P., and Chen, Y. S. (2022). The influence of academic achievement motivation on technical learning engagement of students with specialization in physical education faculty: the mediating role of self-efficacy. J. Southwest Univ. 47, 96–106. doi: 10.13718/j.cnki.xsxb.2022.04.014
China Youth Network (2019). Survey on online hames for college students . Available at: http://edu.youth.cn/jyzx/jyxw/201904/t20190415_11926323.htm
Choi, S. (2019). Relationships between smartphone usage, sleep patterns and nursing students’ learning engagement. J. Korean Biol. Nurs. Sci. 21, 231–238. doi: 10.7586/jkbns.2019.21.3.231
Choi, C., Hums, M. A., and Bum, C. H. (2018). Impact of the family environment on juvenile mental health: eSports online game addiction and delinquency. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15:2850. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15122850
Cui, J., Yang, K. B., Yang, Q. Y., Liu, Y., Zhao, R. J., Wu, W., et al. (2021). Psychological influences of online game addiction among college students in Chengde City. Chin. J. Drug Depend 30, 296–300+305. doi: 10.13936/j.cnki.cjdd1992.2021.04.011
Demir, Y., and Kutlu, M. (2018). Relationships among Internet addiction, academic motivation, academic procrastination and school attachment in adolescents. Int. Online J. Educat. Sci. 10, 315–332. doi: 10.15345/iojes.2018.05.020
Dincer, A., Yeşilyurt, S., Noels, K. A., and Vargas Lascano, D. I. (2019). Self-determination and classroom engagement of EFL Learners: a mixed-methods study of the self-system model of motivational development. SAGE Open 9:215824401985391. doi: 10.1177/2158244019853913
Dunn, T. J., and Kennedy, M. (2019). Technology enhanced learning in higher education; motivations, engagement and academic achievement. Comput. Educ. 137, 104–113. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2019.04.004
Durak, H. Y. (2018). Investigation of nomophobia and smartphone addiction predictors among adolescents in Turkey: demographic variables and academic performance. Soc. Sci. J. 56, 492–517. doi: 10.1016/j.soscij.2018.09.003
Eliseeva, M. I., and Krieger, E. E. (2021). The peculiarities of parent-child relationship among teenagers who are addicted to online games. Psychol. Educat. Stud. 13, 51–67. doi: 10.17759/psyedu.2021130304
Eliyani, E., and Sari, N. F. (2021). The effect of online game activities on student learn motivation. Jurnal Pelita Pendidikan 9, 65–70. doi: 10.24114/jpp.v9i2.23843
Elliot, A. J., and Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 72, 218–232. doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206
Esposito, M. R., Serra, N., Guillari, A., Simeone, S., Sarracino, F., Continisio, G. I., et al. (2020). An investigation into video game addiction in pre-adolescents and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. Medicina 56:221. doi: 10.3390/medicina56050221
Fan, H., and Gai, X. Y. (2022). A survey study on contemporary college students’ leisure activities and online gaming behavior. Campus Life Mental Health 20, 12–16. doi: 10.19521/j.cnki.1673-1662.2022.01.002
Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Rev. Educ. Res. 59, 117–142. doi: 10.3102/00346543059002117
Finn, J. D., Pannozzo, G. M., and Voelkl, K. E. (1995). Disruptive and inattentive-withdrawn behavior and achievement among fourth graders. Elem. Sch. J. 95, 421–434. doi: 10.1086/461853
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., and Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Rev. Educ. Res. 74, 59–109. doi: 10.3102/00346543074001059
Fredricks, J. A., and McColskey, W. (2012). “The measurement of student engagement: a comparative analysis of various methods and student self-report instruments,” in Handbook of research on student engagement (New York, NY: Springer), 763–782.
Gao, B., Zhu, S. J., and Wu, J. L. (2021). The relationship between cell phone addiction and learning engagement among college students: the mediating role of self-control and the moderating role of core self-evaluation. Psychol. Dev. Educ. 37, 400–406. doi: 10.16187/j.cnki.issn1001-4918.2021.03.11
Gu, M. (2022). Understanding the relationship between distress intolerance and problematic internet use: the mediating role of coping motives and the moderating role of need frustration. J. Adolesc. 94, 497–512. doi: 10.1002/jad.12032
Guo, J. P., Liu, G. Y., and Yang, L. Y. (2021). Mechanisms and models influencing college students’ learning engagement – a survey based on 311 undergraduate higher education schools. Educ. Res. 42, 104–115.
Hafiz, B., and Shaari, J. A. N. (2013). “Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of first order factor measurement model-ICT empowerment in Nigeria,” in International Journal of Business Management and Administration . 2, 81–88.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., and Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th. New York Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F., Hult, T. M., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) . Thousand Oaks, CA SAGE.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: indeed a silver bullet. J. Mark. Theory Pract. 19, 139–152. doi: 10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202
Haji Anzehai, Z. (2020). Correlation between self-efficacy and addiction to social networks with the motivation of academic achievement in high school students in Tehran. J. Health Promot. Manag. 9, 72–86.
Han, J., and Lu, Q. (2018). “A correlation study among achievement motivation, goal-setting and L2 learning strategy in EFL context,” in English Language Teaching . 11, 5–14.
Hong, J. C., Ye, J. N., Ye, J. H., Wang, C. M., and Cui, Y. T. (2021). Perceived helicopter parenting related to vocational senior high school students’ academic achievement and smartphone addiction. J. Res. Educat. Sci. 66, 1–33. doi: 10.6209/JORIES.202112_66(4).0001
Hong, R. Z., Ye, J. N., Ye, J. H., Wang, C. M., and Cui, Y. T. (2021). A study on the correlation between “mummy’s boys” behavior awareness, academic achievement motivation and cell phone addiction among technology-based high school students. J. Educat. Sci. Res. 66, 1–33. doi: 10.6209/JORIES.202112_66(4).0001
Hu, Q. Z., Wang, L. Y., and Gao, S. B. (2021). The effect of physics teacher trainees’ learning engagement on academic achievement. Higher Educat. Sci. 2021, 53–60.
Hwang, M. Y., Hong, J. C., Ye, J. H., Wu, Y. F., Tai, K. H., and Kiu, M. C. (2019). Practicing abductive reasoning: the correlations between cognitive factors and learning effects. Comput. Educ. 138, 33–45. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2019.04.014
Kahu, E. R., and Nelson, K. (2018). Student engagement in the educational interface: understanding the mechanisms of student success. High. Educ. Res. Dev. 37, 58–71. doi: 10.1080/07294360.2017.1344197
Kanat, S. (2019). The relationship between digital game addiction, communication skills and loneliness perception levels of university students. Int. Educ. Stud. 12, 80–93. doi: 10.5539/ies.v12n11p80
Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B., and McCoach, D. B. (2015). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociol. Methods Res. 44, 486–507. doi: 10.1177/0049124114543236
Kesici, A. (2020). The effect of conscientiousness and gender on digital game addiction in high school students. J. Educ. Fut. 18, 43–53. doi: 10.30786/jef.543339
Khan, A., Ahmad, F. H., and Malik, M. M. (2017). Use of digital game based learning and gamification in secondary school science: the effect on student engagement, learning and gender difference. Educ. Inf. Technol. 22, 2767–2804. doi: 10.1007/s10639-017-9622-1
Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Cruce, T., Shoup, R., and Gonyea, R. M. (2007). Connecting the dots: multi-faceted analyses of the relationships between student engagement results from the NSSE, and the institutional practices and conditions that foster student success . Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research.
Lau, S., Liem, A. D., and Nie, Y. (2008). Task-and self-related pathways to deep learning: the mediating role of achievement goals, classroom attentiveness, and group participation. Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 78, 639–662. doi: 10.1348/000709907X270261
Li, Y., Yao, C., Zeng, S., Wang, X., Lu, T., Li, C., et al. (2019). How social networking site addiction drives university students’ academic achievement: the mediating role of learning engagement. J. Pac. Rim Psychol. 13:e19. doi: 10.1017/prp.2019.12
Liang, L., Zhu, M., Dai, J., Li, M., and Zheng, Y. (2021). The mediating roles of emotional regulation on negative emotion and internet addiction among Chinese adolescents from a development perspective. Front. Psych. 12:608317. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.608317
Lu, L., Zhang, L., and Wang, L. (2022). The relationship between vocational college students’ liking of teachers and learning engagement: a moderated mediation model. Front. Psychol. 13:998806. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.998806
Luan, L., Hong, J. C., Cao, M., Dong, Y., and Hou, X. (2020). Exploring the role of online EFL learners’ perceived social support in their learning engagement: a structural equation model. Interact. Learn. Environ. 31, 1703–1714. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2020.1855211
MacKinnon, D. P. (2012). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis . New York Routledge.
McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., and Lowell, E. L. (1976). The achievement motive . Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.
Mendoza, J. S., Pody, B. C., Lee, S., Kim, M., and McDonough, I. M. (2018). The effects of cellphones on attention and learning: the influence of time, distraction, and nomophobia. Comput. Hum. Behav. 86, 52–60. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.04.027
Meral, S. A. (2019). Students’ attitudes towards learning, a study on their academic achievement and internet addiction. World J. Educat. 9, 109–122. doi: 10.5430/wje.v9n4p109
Miao, J., and Ma, L. (2022). Students’ online interaction, self-regulation, and learning engagement in higher education: the importance of social presence to online learning. Front. Psychol. 13:815220. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.815220
Mih, V., Mih, C., and Dragoş, V. (2015). Achievement goals and behavioral and emotional engagement as precursors of academic adjusting. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 209, 329–336. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.243
Nakagawa, S., and Cuthill, I. C. (2007). Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists. Biol. Rev. 82, 591–605. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2007.00027.x
Nong, W., He, Z., Ye, J.-H., Wu, Y.-F., Wu, Y.-T., Ye, J. N., et al. (2023). The relationship between short video flow, addiction, serendipity, and achievement motivation among Chinese vocational school students: the post-epidemic era context. Healthcare 11:462. doi: 10.3390/healthcare11040462
Pan, Y., Zhou, D., and Shek, D. T. L. (2022). Participation in after-school extracurricular activities and cognitive ability among early adolescents in China: moderating effects of gender and family economic status. Front. Pediatr. 10:839473. doi: 10.3389/fped.2022.839473
Qi, H. Y., Liu, J. H., Hou, Y. H., Fan, W. F., Hou, J. P., and Wang, X. Y. (2020). The effect of cell phone addiction types on college students’ learning engagement. Health Prot. Promot. 2020, 88–91. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-0223(x).2020.05.023
Rozgonjuk, D., Saal, K., and That, K. (2018). Problematic smartphone use, deep and surface approaches to learning, and social media use in lectures. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15:92. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15010092
Saeid, N., and Eslaminejad, T. (2017). Relationship between student’s self-directed-learning readiness and academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation in students. Int. Educ. Stud. 10, 225–232. doi: 10.5539/ies.v10n1p225
Schaufeli, W. B., Martinez, I. M., Pinto, A. M., Salanova, M., and Bakker, A. B. (2002). Burnout and engagement in university students: a cross-national study. J. Cross-Cult. Psychol. 33, 464–481. doi: 10.1177/0022022102033005003
Selya, A. S., Rose, J. S., Dierker, L. C., Hedeker, D., and Mermelstein, R. J. (2012). A practical guide to calculating Cohen’s f 2 , a measure of local effect size, from PROC MIXED. Front. Psychol. 3:111. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00111
Shao, Y., and Kang, S. (2022). The link between parent-child relationship and learning engagement among adolescents: the chain mediating roles of learning motivation and academic self-efficacy. Front. Educat. 7:854549. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2022.854549
Shek, D. T., Zhu, X., and Dou, D. (2019). Influence of family processes on internet addiction among late adolescents in Hong Kong. Front. Psych. 10:113. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00113
Shumacker, R. E., and Lomax, R. G. (2016). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (4th) New York, NY: Routledge.
Sopiah, C. (2021). The influence of parenting style, achievement motivation and self-regulation on academic achievement. Turk. J. Comput. Math. Educ. 12, 1730–1742. doi: 10.17762/turcomat.v12i10.4635
Stipek, D. (2002). “Good instruction is motivating” in Development of achievement motivation . eds. A. Wigfield and J. Eccles (San Diego, CA: Academic Press)
Story, P. A., Hart, J. W., Stasson, M. F., and Mahoney, J. M. (2009). Using a two-factor theory of achievement motivation to examine performance-based outcomes and self-regulatory processes. Personal. Individ. Differ. 46, 391–395. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.023
Sunday, O. J., Adesope, O. O., and Maarhuis, P. L. (2021). The effects of smartphone addiction on learning: a meta-analysis. Comput. Hum. Behav. Rep. 4:100114. doi: 10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100114
Teng, Z., Pontes, H. M., Nie, Q., Griffiths, M. D., and Guo, C. (2021). Depression and anxiety symptoms associated with internet gaming disorder before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study. J. Behav. Addict. 10, 169–180. doi: 10.1556/2006.2021.00016
Thompson, B. (2002). What future quantitative social science research could look like: confidence intervals for effect sizes. Educ. Res. 31, 25–32. doi: 10.3102/0013189X031003025
Tian, J., Zhao, J. Y., Xu, J. M., Li, Q. L., Sun, T., Zhao, C. X., et al. (2021). Mobile phone addiction and academic procrastination negatively impact academic achievement among Chinese medical students. Front. Psychol. 12:758303. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.758303
Tsai, S. M., Wang, Y. Y., and Weng, C. M. (2020). A study on digital games internet addiction, peer relationships and learning attitude of senior grade of children in elementary school of Chiayi county. J. Educat. Learn. 9, 13–26. doi: 10.5539/jel.v9n3p13
Wang, M. T., and Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: a longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learn. Instr. 28, 12–23. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.04.002
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychol. Rev. 92, 548–573. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.92.4.548
World Health Organization (WHO) (2018a). Inclusion of “gaming disorder” in ICD-11 . Available at: https://www.who.int/news/item/14-09-2018-inclusion-of-gaming-disorder-in-icd-11
World Health Organization (WHO) (2018b). WHO releases new international classification of diseases (ICD11) . Available at: https://www.who.int/news/item/18-06-2018-who-releases-new-international-classification-of-diseases-(icd-11)
Wu, Y.-T., Hong, J.-C., Wu, Y.-F., and Ye, J.-H. (2021). eSport addiction, purchasing motivation and continuous purchasing intention on eSport peripheral products. Int. J. e-Education e-Business e-Management e-Learning 11, 21–33. doi: 10.17706/ijeeee.2021.11.1.21-33
Xiang, G. X., Gan, X., Jin, X., and Zhang, Y. H. (2022a). The more developmental assets, the less internet gaming disorder? Testing the cumulative effect and longitudinal mechanism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Curr. Psychol. 1–12, 1–12. doi: 10.1007/s12144-022-03790-9
Xiang, G. X., Gan, X., Jin, X., Zhang, Y. H., and Zhu, C. S. (2022b). Developmental assets, self-control and internet gaming disorder in adolescence: testing a moderated mediation model in a longitudinal study. Front. Public Health 10:808264. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.808264
Xiang, G. X., Li, H., Gan, X., Qin, K. N., Jin, X., and Wang, P. Y. (2022c). School resources, self-control and problem behaviors in Chinese adolescents: a longitudinal study in the post-pandemic era. Curr. Psychol. 1-13, 1–13. doi: 10.1007/s12144-022-04178-5
Xiong, Y., Li, H., Kornhaber, M. L., Suen, H. K., Pursel, B., and Goins, D. D. (2015). Examining the relations among student motivation, engagement, and retention in a MOOC: a structural equation modeling approach. Glob. Educ. Rev. 2, 23–33.
Yang, J., Peng, M. Y. P., Wong, S., and Chong, W. (2021). How E-learning environmental stimuli influence determinates of learning engagement in the context of COVID-19? SOR model perspective. Front. Psychol. 12:584976. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.584976
Yang, X., Zhang, M., Kong, L., Wang, Q., and Hong, J. C. (2021). The effects of scientific self-efficacy and cognitive anxiety on science engagement with the “question-observation-doing-explanation” model during school disruption in COVID-19 pandemic. J. Sci. Educ. Technol. 30, 380–393. doi: 10.30773/pi.2020.0034
Yayman, E., and Bilgin, O. (2020). Relationship between social media addiction, game addiction and family functions. Int. J. Evaluat. Res. Educat. 9, 979–986. doi: 10.11591/ijere.v9i4.20680
Ye, J. H., Wang, C. M., and Ye, J. N. (2020). An analysis of the relationship between achievement motivation, learning engagement and continuous improvement attitudes of technical vocational college students. J. Natl. Taichung Univ. Sci. Technol. 7, 1–20. doi: 10.6902/JNTUST.202012_7(2).0001
Ye, J. H., Wu, Y. F., Nong, W., Wu, Y. T., Ye, J. N., and Sun, Y. (2023). The association of short-video problematic use, learning engagement, and perceived learning ineffectiveness among Chinese vocational students. Healthcare 11:161. doi: 10.3390/healthcare11020161
Ye, J. H., Wu, Y. T., Wu, Y. F., Chen, M. Y., and Ye, J. N. (2022). Effects of short video addiction on the motivation and well-being of Chinese vocational college students. Front. Public Health 10:847672. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.847672
Yu, L., and Shek, D. T. L. (2013). Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents: a three-year longitudinal study. J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. 26, S10–S17. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2013.03.010
Zhang, N. (2012). A review of Chinese domestic and international research on learning engagement and its school influences. Psychol. Res. 5, 83–92.
Zhang, Y., Qin, X., and Ren, P. (2018). Adolescents’ academic engagement mediates the association between internet addiction and academic achievement: the moderating effect of classroom achievement norm. Comput. Hum. Behav. 89, 299–307. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.018
Zhao, H., Xiong, J., Zhang, Z., and Qi, C. (2021). Growth mindset and college students’ learning engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic: a serial mediation model. Front. Psychol. 12:621094. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.621094
Zhou, H. (2009). The effect of cooperative learning in basketball teaching on social behavior and academic achievement motivation. Zhejiang Sport Sci. 31, 109–112.
Keywords: college students, online game addiction, learning engagement, reduced academic achievement motivation, online games
Citation: Sun R-Q, Sun G-F and Ye J-H (2023) The effects of online game addiction on reduced academic achievement motivation among Chinese college students: the mediating role of learning engagement. Front. Psychol . 14:1185353. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1185353
Received: 13 March 2023; Accepted: 08 June 2023; Published: 13 July 2023.
Copyright © 2023 Sun, Sun and Ye. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Jian-Hong Ye, [email protected]
† These authors have contributed equally to this work and share first authorship
An official website of the United States government
The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.
The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.
- Account settings
- Advanced Search
- Journal List
- Addict Health
- v.1(2); Fall 2009
Effect of Addiction to Computer Games on Physical and Mental Health of Female and Male Students of Guidance School in City of Isfahan
* Assistant Professor, School of Education, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
** School of Education, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
*** Dentist, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
This study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to computer games on physical and mental health of students.
The study population includes all students in the second year of public guidance schools in the city of Isfahan in the educational year of 2009-2010. The sample size includes 564 students selected by multiple steps stratified sampling. Dependent variables include general health in dimensions of physical health, anxiety and sleeplessness and impaired social functioning. Data were collected using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scale and a questionnaire on addiction to computer games. Pearson's correlation coefficient and structural model were used for data analysis.
There was a significant positive correlation between students' computer games addiction and their physical and mental health in dimensions of physical health, anxiety and sleeplessness There was a significant negative relationship between addictions to computer games and impaired social functioning.
The results of this study are in agreement with the findings of other studies around the world. As the results show, addiction to computer games affects various dimensions of health and increases physical problems, anxiety and depression, while decreases social functioning disorder.
Computer games are the most popular entertainments in modern societies and they target a variety of people in different ages. The addiction to the rivalry and excitements of the games make them the most common recreational programs for today's teenagers, so that they do anything to reach a higher level of the game, they immerse in the game so much that they completely separate from their surroundings. Challenging with the obstacles and reaching a higher level in the game, make the players excited and losing the game make them anxious. 1
Computer games started in 1972 with Pang, a computer tennis game, and then developed in hardware and software systems. Improvement of quality and variety of games increasingly spread it in the society especially adolescences. 2 It is believed that computer games like watching TV provides opportunities for visual learning. Especially because these games are more active compared to watching TV, they are considered more effective. 3 Since these games are known as the second entertainment after TV, opponents of these games emphasize on their negative effects such as stimulating anger and violence, costing a lot of money and having negative effects of physical and mental health, which are much higher than the positive effects of the games such as increasing the coordination of eyes and hands. 4 As Klein and Keepers mentioned in their research reports in 1990, students who prefer computer games to other entertainments have more behavioral problems that other students (cited from Patton). 5
Currently in Iran, a great part of students' leisure time out of school is spent on computer games . 6 The reasons for adolescents' attraction to these games include being excited and easily accessible while authorities and families do not have any proper plan for students' leisure time and there is not many options for their entertainments. Playing computer games to some extent can be useful, but long-term playing leads to various physical and mental complications. 7 Long term involvement with these games means the players long term tension, restlessness and worrisome and during the game, physical tensions and real physical stimulations are experiences. By sympathetic nervous system stimulation, this can gradually make this system sensitive and ready for response to limited stimulants, while causes anxiety symptoms in the player. A study by Sherry et al (2001) investigating the reasons for playing video and computer games by adolescents and their game priorities on 535 adolescents in age 15-20 in the West USA found that 68% of adolescents had these games as their weekly entertainment. The reasons for playing these games among boys were excitements and challenges and they insisted to win. Moreover, sport and violent games were more attractive for boys. 8
Development of electronic and computer games are a great threat for youth and adolescents and can lead to psychological disorders and depression in these groups. In previous times, kids were involved playing with other children, but children of today spend most of their time on computer games as soon as they understand and acquainted with them, while these games cannot create any emotional and human relationship. 9
Children's and adolescents attractions to the computer games cause many mental, physical and social problems for them. These effects are stimulating anger and violence, obesity, epilepsy due to games, social isolation, and other physical and mental damages. Many psychologists and mental health professionals have paid attention to the effects of these games. 10
The increasing prevalence of computer games among children and adolescents have made many researchers to determine the effects of these games on players. In Iran, there are few and limited studies on the effects of addiction to computer games on players. Considering the increasing rate of addiction to computer games among Iranian adolescents and youth, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of addiction to computer games on physical and mental health including physical health, anxiety, and depression and impaired social functioning.
The aim of this descriptive correlation study was to determine the effects of computer games addiction on physical and mental health of male and female students of guidance schools in Isfahan city.
The study population includes all students in the second year of public guidance schools in Isfahan city in the educational year of 2009-2010. The sample size includes 564 students selected by multiple steps stratified sampling method. Data were collected by using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scale and a questionnaire on addiction to computer games. To do this research, at first 3 districts (2-4) were selected randomly among five districts of Isfahan Board of Education. From each district, one boy and one girl guidance school was chosen randomly. In total, 600 students were chosen for filling the questionnaires, after obtaining the permission from Isfahan Board of Education. The questionnaires distributed among sample. 564 students filled the questionnaires and returned to the researcher.
The data collection instrument was included the form of GHQ-28 inventory of physical and psychological health measurement. Another tool was Antwan's (2008) questionnaire for addiction to computer. The Cranbach's alpha was reported 0.92 by this researcher, 11 since the validity and reliability of this questionnaire was not assessed for Iran; 30 students were selected as sample for a pilot study and after data analysis, and the reliability was measured 0.76. This questionnaire was based on Lickert scale and scored from 1 to 5. 1was for very little and 5 score was considered for very much.
The GHQ 28 inventory is created by Goldberg (1972) for diagnosing psychological disorders in various centers and environments. The questions are about the psychological condition in past month, including signs such as thought, abnormal emotions and dimensions of behavior that are observable. Therefore, questions emphasize on the situation (here and now). This questionnaire is the most known instrument for screening in psychiatry, and has a significant effect on developing researches. This questionnaire is in forms of 30. 60. 12 and 28 questions. 11
The GHQ-28 which is used in this study was standardized by Palahang 12 (2005) and Yaqubi (2005) 13 in Iran. This questionnaire was used to assess health signs including physical complain, sleep disorder, disorder of social functioning and depression.
The study population included 564 students including 263 girls (46.6%) and 301 boys (53.4%). These 564 students were divided into two groups of 467 students (82.8%) as non-addicts and 97 students who played with computer games with a mean of 3 or higher (17.2%). The mean age of participants was 13 years old.
Based on the findings presented in table 1 , correlation between addiction to computer games and physical complains, anxiety and sleep disorder, disorder in social functioning and depression were significant in level P ≤ 0.05. Therefore, there was a direct relationship between addiction to computer games and physical disorders such as anxiety, sleep disorder and depression. But, there was a positive correlation between addiction to computer games and social dysfunction. In other words, based on coefficient of determination, 4% variance of addiction to computer games is common with physical disorder, 12% with anxiety and sleep disorder, 1% with disorder of social functioning and 6% with depression.
Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions
Based on the findings presented in table 2 , correlation between addiction to computer games and physical complains, anxiety and sleep disorder, social dysfunction and depression were significant in level P ≤ 0.05. Therefore, there was a direct relationship between addiction to computer games and physical disorder, anxiety, sleep disorder and depression. But, the relationship between addiction to computer games and social dysfunction is reverse. In other words, based on coefficient of determination, 5% variance of addiction to computer games is common with physical disorder, 19% with anxiety and sleep disorder, 2% with disorder of social functioning and 10% with depression.
Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions in male students
Based on the findings presented in table 3 , correlation between addiction to computer games and physical complains, anxiety and sleep disorder, social dysfunction and depression were significant in level P ≤ 0.05. Therefore, there was a direct relationship between addiction to computer games and physical disorder, anxiety, sleep disorder and depression. But, the relationship between addiction to computer games and disorder of social functioning is reverse. In other words, based on coefficient of determination, 3% variance of addiction to computer games is common with physical disorder, 12% with anxiety and sleep disorder, 0,9% with social dysfunction and 5% with depression.
Correlation coefficient between addiction to computer games and health dimensions of female students
The results in the table 4 show that all relationships between variables 2 x 2 are significant. The effects of health with addiction to games is 0.38 which is significant in level 0.99 and shows the positive effects of addiction to games on general health of students.
Relation between addiction to computer games and health dimensions
Based on the results presented in table 5 , all indices show the suitability of the model.
Suitability indices of variables
Figure 1 and figure 2 show standard coefficient of path analysis and t-chart of path analysis of relationship of health components and addiction to computer games respectively.
Standard coefficient of path analysis for relationship between health components and addiction to computer games
T-chart of path analysis of relationship between health components and addiction to computer games
The results of this study showed that there is a direct relationship between physical health, anxiety and depression with computer games addiction. However, the relationship of addiction to computer games and social dysfunction was significance and inverse. In 1990, Yuma et al conducted an intensive study in 9 cities of Japan about the computer games played by children and adolescents and its relationship with their physical health. The results showed that obese students were more attracted to computer games. In other words, playing more computer games cause adolescents to stay home, which lead to their lack of activity and getting fat. This is considered as a biological problem. 14 In psychological dimension, it seems that computer games have a negative relationship with mental health of adolescents and have a direct effect on their violent behavior, anxiety, depression and isolation of those adolescents who play these games. The effects of computer games on psychological health of people and severity and significance of that depends on factors such as level and intensity of violence in the game, the ability of player in differentiating virtual world and real world, player's ability to inhibit their desires and motivation, the values they are brought up with or living with and also values that are in the context and content of the games. 15 Anxiety was one of possible outcomes of computer games, which is studies by researchers. Studies showed that computer games increases players' heart beats to a level more than their body request. 16 In the present study also, we found a direct significant relationship between addiction to computer games and anxiety.
Payne et al (2000) studied the role of computer games on social isolation, low self-esteem and violence. The results showed no relationship between playing computer games and self-esteem in girls, but there was a negative relationship between the two in boys. Also, the scores of violence had a positive correlation with amount of exposure to computer games. Other results showed that in spite of children's attraction to games, there was no evidence that computer games cause social isolation. 17 Since in computer games, players conform to the characters in the game, in creating the new situations that occur in the game, the theory of participatory modeling and active conditioning can be used in explaining data on violent behaviors and possible rewards they get in response. 18
Azad Fallah et al (2001) in their study investigated the relationship between games and social skills of 258 male students of first grade of high school. The results showed a significant relationship between the game-type and presence of others in the game location with social skills of adolescents. Selecting home as the place of game had a significance negative relationship with social skills and those adolescents who were mostly playing at home, had less social skill (cited from Doran). 7 However, in the present study, there was an inverse relationship between addiction to computer games and social dysfunction. It means that as the addiction to computer games increases, social dysfunction will decrease.
Ahmadi (1998) studied the effects of computer games on adolescents of the city of Isfahan. The aim of his study was to find out if computer games have social effects. The results showed that violence and aggression in students who played these games was higher than those who did not play. Also, social participation of students who were playing computer games was low. 10
The first factor noticed in most studies as well as the present study is the disorder in general health of players. Various studies show that playing too much computer games causes physical damages and increases anxiety and depression in players. Many studies show that most adolescents who are addicted to computer games have high heart beat and blood pressure due to too much excitement and stress. Most of those who involve in these games do not notice the time passing and even forget to eat. It seems that creating a cause and effect relationship between computer games and physical health or more generally speaking, cause and effect relationship between addiction to computer games and mental and physical health is simplification of the subject. There are various causes for correlation between addiction to computer games and physical health, anxiety and depression. First, addiction to computer games can cause disorder in physical health, increase anxiety and depression. Second, it is possible that disorder in physical and mental health cause people to get attracted to computer games. Third way is that both addiction to computer games and disorder in physical and mental health are created due to the effects of other factors.
Considering associations between playing computer games and physical and mental disorders, the negative effects of these games are basically related to the games and their nature. Therefore, some computer games can be constructive, while others can have damaging effects on children's body and mind. Therefore, we should accept anyway that computer games like many other phenomenon of technology age have found their way to our children's and our lives. If we want to ignore them and deprive our children playing them, we make them more eager to access them and if they cannot play games at home, they will go to their friends, if they cannot play there, they will go to Internet cafe and places they can find computer games.
On the other hand, if we want to leave our children on their own in this field, mental, psychological and physical risks threat them. So, parents and authorities in cultural and educational fields should have appropriate plans to provide proper involvement of children in these games and in this regards, we should produce games which are based on our culture. Moreover, it is important to prevent import of damaging and harmful games to the country, which is a responsibility of authorities. Also, serious supervision on children's involvement with computer is needed at home; especially their involvement with computer games and parents should teach their children the proper culture of playing games. In fact, one of main worries about computer games, considering their wide usage among adolescents is that these games may create a more attractive environment compared to school works and interfere with school and educational performance of children. It is obvious that if children spend all their time out of school to computer games and neglects other activities which may be useful from the social viewpoint or for their thinking, it will not be favorable. In addition, the newness of this phenomenon demands lots of curiosities and researches. Investigating the negative effects of computer games on educational achievement is recommended for further studies.
In spite of more than 20 years studies on computer and video games and their outcomes and effects in the world, in Iran where a great portion of population is youth and adolescents and there is a significant prevalence of computer games, there are few studies on this topic, which suggest the need for further studies.
Conflict of interest:
The Authors have no conflict of interest