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The Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG) with a tradition extending back to 1845 is the largest physical society in the world with more than 61,000 members. The DPG sees itself as the forum and mouthpiece for physics and is a non-profit organisation that does not pursue financial interests. It supports the sharing of ideas and thoughts within the scientific community, fosters physics teaching and would also like to open a window to physics for all those with a healthy curiosity.
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Caroline Cohen et al 2015 New J. Phys. 17 063001
The conical shape of a shuttlecock allows it to flip on impact. As a light and extended particle, it flies with a pure drag trajectory. We first study the flip phenomenon and the dynamics of the flight and then discuss the implications on the game. Lastly, a possible classification of different shots is proposed.
Andrzej Dragan and Artur Ekert 2020 New J. Phys. 22 033038
Quantum mechanics is an incredibly successful theory and yet the statistical nature of its predictions is hard to accept and has been the subject of numerous debates. The notion of inherent randomness, something that happens without any cause, goes against our rational understanding of reality. To add to the puzzle, randomness that appears in non-relativistic quantum theory tacitly respects relativity, for example, it makes instantaneous signaling impossible. Here, we argue that this is because the special theory of relativity can itself account for such a random behavior. We show that the full mathematical structure of the Lorentz transformation, the one which includes the superluminal part, implies the emergence of non-deterministic dynamics, together with complex probability amplitudes and multiple trajectories. This indicates that the connections between the two seemingly different theories are deeper and more subtle than previously thought.
Roger Bach et al 2013 New J. Phys. 15 033018
Double-slit diffraction is a corner stone of quantum mechanics. It illustrates key features of quantum mechanics: interference and the particle-wave duality of matter. In 1965, Richard Feynman presented a thought experiment to show these features. Here we demonstrate the full realization of his famous thought experiment. By placing a movable mask in front of a double-slit to control the transmission through the individual slits, probability distributions for single- and double-slit arrangements were observed. Also, by recording single electron detection events diffracting through a double-slit, a diffraction pattern was built up from individual events.
Ran Finkelstein et al 2023 New J. Phys. 25 035001
This tutorial introduces the theoretical and experimental basics of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in thermal alkali vapors. We first give a brief phenomenological description of EIT in simple three-level systems of stationary atoms and derive analytical expressions for optical absorption and dispersion under EIT conditions. Then we focus on how the thermal motion of atoms affects various parameters of the EIT system. Specifically, we analyze the Doppler broadening of optical transitions, ballistic versus diffusive atomic motion in a limited-volume interaction region, and collisional depopulation and decoherence. Finally, we discuss the common trade-offs important for optimizing an EIT experiment and give a brief 'walk-through' of a typical EIT experimental setup. We conclude with a brief overview of current and potential EIT applications.
Robert Alicki et al 2023 New J. Phys. 25 113013
Jarrod R McClean et al 2016 New J. Phys. 18 023023
Many quantum algorithms have daunting resource requirements when compared to what is available today. To address this discrepancy, a quantum-classical hybrid optimization scheme known as 'the quantum variational eigensolver' was developed (Peruzzo et al 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4213 ) with the philosophy that even minimal quantum resources could be made useful when used in conjunction with classical routines. In this work we extend the general theory of this algorithm and suggest algorithmic improvements for practical implementations. Specifically, we develop a variational adiabatic ansatz and explore unitary coupled cluster where we establish a connection from second order unitary coupled cluster to universal gate sets through a relaxation of exponential operator splitting. We introduce the concept of quantum variational error suppression that allows some errors to be suppressed naturally in this algorithm on a pre-threshold quantum device. Additionally, we analyze truncation and correlated sampling in Hamiltonian averaging as ways to reduce the cost of this procedure. Finally, we show how the use of modern derivative free optimization techniques can offer dramatic computational savings of up to three orders of magnitude over previously used optimization techniques.
L S Liebovitch et al 2019 New J. Phys. 21 073022
Peace is not merely the absence of war and violence, rather 'positive peace' is the political, economic, and social systems that generate and sustain peaceful societies. Our international and multidisciplinary group is using physics inspired complex systems analysis methods to understand the factors and their interactions that together support and maintain peace. We developed causal loop diagrams and from them ordinary differential equation models of the system needed for sustainable peace. We then used that mathematical model to determine the attractors in the system, the dynamics of the approach to those attractors, and the factors and connections that play the most important role in determining the final state of the system. We used data science ('big data') methods to measure quantitative values of the peace factors from structured and unstructured (social media) data. We also developed a graphical user interface for the mathematical model so that social scientists or policy makers, can by themselves, explore the effects of changing the variables and parameters in these systems. These results demonstrate that complex systems analysis methods, previously developed and applied to physical and biological systems, can also be productively applied to analyze social systems such as those needed for sustainable peace.
K S Lee et al 2022 New J. Phys. 24 123024
Antonio Acín et al 2018 New J. Phys. 20 080201
Within the last two decades, quantum technologies (QT) have made tremendous progress, moving from Nobel Prize award-winning experiments on quantum physics (1997: Chu, Cohen-Tanoudji, Phillips; 2001: Cornell, Ketterle, Wieman; 2005: Hall, Hänsch-, Glauber; 2012: Haroche, Wineland) into a cross-disciplinary field of applied research. Technologies are being developed now that explicitly address individual quantum states and make use of the 'strange' quantum properties, such as superposition and entanglement. The field comprises four domains: quantum communication, where individual or entangled photons are used to transmit data in a provably secure way; quantum simulation, where well-controlled quantum systems are used to reproduce the behaviour of other, less accessible quantum systems; quantum computation, which employs quantum effects to dramatically speed up certain calculations, such as number factoring; and quantum sensing and metrology, where the high sensitivity of coherent quantum systems to external perturbations is exploited to enhance the performance of measurements of physical quantities. In Europe, the QT community has profited from several EC funded coordination projects, which, among other things, have coordinated the creation of a 150-page QT Roadmap ( http://qurope.eu/h2020/qtflagship/roadmap2016 ). This article presents an updated summary of this roadmap.
Shinsei Ryu et al 2010 New J. Phys. 12 065010
Alexander J H Houston and Gareth P Alexander 2023 New J. Phys. 25 123006
A major challenge in the study of active systems is to harness their non-equilibrium dynamics into useful work. We address this by showing how to design colloids with controllable spontaneous propulsion or rotation when immersed in active nematics. This is illustrated for discs with tilted anchoring and chiral cogs, for which we determine the nematic director through conformal mappings. Our analysis identifies two regimes of behaviour for chiral cogs: orientation-dependent handedness and persistent active rotation. Finally, we provide design principles for active nematic colloids to achieve desired rotational dynamics.
Julian Siegl and John Schliemann 2023 New J. Phys. 25 123002
Subhadeep Mondal and Amit Kumar Dutta 2023 New J. Phys. 25 123001
Quantum state tomography (QST) is essential for characterizing unknown quantum states. Several methods of estimating quantum states already exist and can be classified mainly into three broad classes. They are based on the criteria like maximum likelihood, linear inversion, and Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework for QST gives a better reconstruction performance. However, the existing methods of the Bayesian frameworks are computationally extensive and, most of the time require knowledge about the prior distribution of the quantum state. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian method of QST based on the linear minimum mean square error criterion, where the prior statistics are estimated and the computational complexity is comparable to that of the linear inversion based QST method. We also propose an adaptive version based on the block estimation of parameters. Extensive numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate its efficacy over the linear inversion-based QST regarding trace distance error metric.
Hao Wang et al 2023 New J. Phys. 25 123005
Identifying key spreaders in a network is one of the fundamental problems in the field of complex network research, and accurately identifying influential propagators in a network holds significant practical implications. In recent years, numerous effective methods have been proposed and widely applied. However, many of these methods still have certain limitations. For instance, some methods rely solely on the global position information of nodes to assess their propagation influence, disregarding local node information. Additionally, certain methods do not consider clustering coefficients, which are essential attributes of nodes. Inspired by the quality formula, this paper introduces a method called Structural Neighborhood Centrality (SNC) that takes into account the neighborhood information of nodes. SNC measures the propagation power of nodes based on first and second-order neighborhood degrees, local clustering coefficients, structural hole constraints, and other information, resulting in higher accuracy. A series of pertinent experiments conducted on 12 real-world datasets demonstrate that, in terms of accuracy, SNC outperforms methods like CycleRatio and KSGC. Additionally, SNC demonstrates heightened monotonicity, enabling it to distinguish subtle differences between nodes. Furthermore, when it comes to identifying the most influential Top-k nodes, SNC also displays superior capabilities compared to the aforementioned methods. Finally, we conduct a detailed analysis of SNC and discuss its advantages and limitations.
Mikołaj Lasota et al 2023 New J. Phys. 25 123003
Discrete-variable (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) schemes constitute the two major families of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. Unfortunately, since the setup elements required by these schemes are quite different, making a fair comparison of their potential performance in particular applications is often troublesome, limiting the experimenters' capability to choose an optimal solution. In this work we perform a general comparison of the major entanglement-based DV and CV QKD protocols in terms of their resistance to the channel noise, with the otherwise perfect setup, showing the definite superiority of the DV family. We analytically derive fundamental bounds on the tolerable channel noise and attenuation for entanglement-based CV QKD protocols. We also investigate the influence of DV QKD setup imperfections on the obtained results in order to determine benchmarks for the parameters of realistic photon sources and detectors, allowing the realistic DV protocols to outperform even the ideal CV QKD analogs. Our results indicate the realistic advantage of DV entanglement-based schemes over their CV counterparts and suggests the practical efforts for maximizing this advantage.
J Lambert and E S Sørensen 2023 New J. Phys. 25 081201
Recently, there has been considerable interest in the application of information geometry to quantum many body physics. This interest has been driven by three separate lines of research, which can all be understood as different facets of quantum information geometry. First, the study of topological phases of matter characterized by Chern number is rooted in the symplectic structure of the quantum state space, known in the physics literature as Berry curvature. Second, in the study of quantum phase transitions, the fidelity susceptibility has gained prominence as a universal probe of quantum criticality, even for systems that lack an obviously discernible order parameter. Finally, the study of quantum Fisher information in many body systems has seen a surge of interest due to its role as a witness of genuine multipartite entanglement and owing to its utility as a quantifier of quantum resources, in particular those useful in quantum sensing. Rather than a thorough review, our aim is to connect key results within a common conceptual framework that may serve as an introductory guide to the extensive breadth of applications, and deep mathematical roots, of quantum information geometry, with an intended audience of researchers in quantum many body and condensed matter physics.
Quentin Glorieux et al 2023 New J. Phys. 25 051201
Nonlinear optics has been a very dynamic field of research with spectacular phenomena discovered mainly after the invention of lasers. The combination of high intensity fields with resonant systems has further enhanced the nonlinearity with specific additional effects related to the resonances. In this paper we review a limited range of these effects which has been studied in the past decades using close-to-room-temperature atomic vapors as the nonlinear resonant medium. In particular we describe four-wave mixing and generation of nonclassical light in atomic vapors. One-and two-mode squeezing as well as photon correlations are discussed. Furthermore, we present some applications for optical and quantum memories based on hot atomic vapors. Finally, we present results on the recently developed field of quantum fluids of light using hot atomic vapors.
F Luoni et al 2021 New J. Phys. 23 101201
Realistic nuclear reaction cross-section models are an essential ingredient of reliable heavy-ion transport codes. Such codes are used for risk evaluation of manned space exploration missions as well as for ion-beam therapy dose calculations and treatment planning. Therefore, in this study, a collection of total nuclear reaction cross-section data has been generated within a GSI-ESA-NASA collaboration. The database includes the experimentally measured total nucleus–nucleus reaction cross-sections. The Tripathi, Kox, Shen, Kox–Shen, and Hybrid-Kurotama models are systematically compared with the collected data. Details about the implementation of the models are given. Literature gaps are pointed out and considerations are made about which models fit best the existing data for the most relevant systems to radiation protection in space and heavy-ion therapy.
S Al Kharusi et al 2021 New J. Phys. 23 031201
The next core-collapse supernova in the Milky Way or its satellites will represent a once-in-a-generation opportunity to obtain detailed information about the explosion of a star and provide significant scientific insight for a variety of fields because of the extreme conditions found within. Supernovae in our galaxy are not only rare on a human timescale but also happen at unscheduled times, so it is crucial to be ready and use all available instruments to capture all possible information from the event. The first indication of a potential stellar explosion will be the arrival of a bright burst of neutrinos. Its observation by multiple detectors worldwide can provide an early warning for the subsequent electromagnetic fireworks, as well as signal to other detectors with significant backgrounds so they can store their recent data. The supernova early warning system (SNEWS) has been operating as a simple coincidence between neutrino experiments in automated mode since 2005. In the current era of multi-messenger astronomy there are new opportunities for SNEWS to optimize sensitivity to science from the next galactic supernova beyond the simple early alert. This document is the product of a workshop in June 2019 towards design of SNEWS 2.0, an upgraded SNEWS with enhanced capabilities exploiting the unique advantages of prompt neutrino detection to maximize the science gained from such a valuable event.
Dragan and Ekert in the paper New. J. Phys. 22 033038 (2021) presented
``quantum principle of relativity'' (QPR) based on Galilean
principle of relativity, which involves both superluminal $G_S$ and
subluminal $G_s$ families of observers and argue that then they are
considered on the same footing it ``implies the emergence of
non-deterministic dynamics, together with complex probability
amplitudes and multiple trajectories.''. Here we discuss QPR in the
context of Heisenberg's classification of the fundamental physical
theoretical models under the role universal constants of nature:
Planck's constant $h$ and speed of light $c$. We point out
that both the superluminal
and subluminal branches are separable in the sense that there is no
mathematical coherent formalism that connect both branches.
This, in particular, implies that the quantum principle of relativity is incomplete.
Yan et al
We systematically investigate the nonreciprocal Kitaev chain, where the nonreciprocity arises from the hopping amplitude and pairing strength. By studying the Hamiltonians under three diﬀerent basises, we reveal that the nonreciprocal hopping amplitude cannot induce a topological phase transition, but can result in the complex energy spectrum and non-Hermitian skin eﬀect. Moreover, the Majorana zero energy edge modes, which are robust to the nonreciprocal hopping amplitude, exist stably in the topologically nontrivial phase. On the other hand, the nonreciprocal pairing strength can trigger a topological phase transition, which is associated with the time-reversal and pseudo-Hermitian symmetries breaking. More interestingly, we observe that the exceptional points independent of the topological phase can be determined by the dispersion relation, and there is no non-Hermitian skin eﬀect in the system. Furthermore, we calculate the topological invariant to demonstrate the validity of the bulk-edge correspondence in the symmetry-unbroken region. Our investigation provides a path to explore the fundamental physics pertaining to the interplay between nonreciprocity and topology in non-Hermitian topological superconductors.
Hildebrandt et al
We demonstrate the determination of anharmonic acoustic phonon properties via second-order Raman scattering exemplarily on copper iodide single crystals. The origin of multi-phonon features from the second-order Raman spectra was assigned by the support of the calculated 2-phonon density of states. In this way, the temperature dependence of acoustic phonons was determined down to 10 K. To determine independently the harmonic contributions of respective acoustic phonons, density functional theory (DFT) in quasi-harmonic approximation was used. Finally, the anharmonic contributions were determined. The results are in agreement with earlier publications and extend CuI's determined acoustic phonon properties to lower temperatures with higher accuracy. This approach demonstrates that it is possible to characterize the acoustic anharmonicities via Raman scattering down to zero-temperature renormalization constants of at least 0.1 cm -1 .
Li et al
We present a comprehensive analysis of the anomalous Goos-Hänchen (GH) displacement that occurs during the reflection of light beams at an interface between air and an anisotropic medium. This analysis also applies to the Imbert-Fedorov effect. Our study suggests that the anomalous GH displacement is primarily caused by polarization-dependent abnormal interference effects between the direct and cross-reflected light fields. Using the interface between air and a type II Weyl semimetal (WSM) as an example, we provide a clear physical explanation for the relationship between spin-dependent abnormal interference effects and anomalous GH displacement. We demonstrate that spin-dependent constructive interference leads to a reduction in the GH displacement of the total reflected light field, while spin-dependent destructive interference results in an increase in the GH displacement of the total reflected light field.
Köhnke et al
We present a supercontinuum pulse shaping method specifically designed for the generation of polarization-tailored multichromatic femtosecond laser fields. By combining a 4 f -polarization pulse shaper with a custom-made polarizer kit, we independently modulate different spectral bands of a white-light supercontinuum in amplitude, phase, and polarization. The scheme is highly modular, scalable to any number of bands supported by the input spectrum and aims at the physically motivated design of specific laser fields tailored to the relevant transitions and dynamics of the quantum system. The power and versatility of the scheme is showcased in three different scenarios based on atomic multiphoton ionization employing polarization-tailored trichromatic pulse sequences. (1) We demonstrate the creation of an f x ( x 2 -3 y 2 ) -type free electron wave packet and reconstruct its 3D momentum distribution by a waveplate-free shaper-based photoelectron tomography technique. (2) We utilize the holographic properties of the wave packet to study time-resolved and phase-sensitive ultrafast dynamics of bound states. (3) We investigate the field-free time-evolution of a photoelectron wave packet in the continuum. Our results on an atomic model system demonstrate the great potential of the modular shaping scheme for a wide range of applications on more complex quantum systems, including polyatomic molecules, nanoscopic structures and solids.
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Physical Review Physics Education Research
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Toward ai grading of student problem solutions in introductory physics: a feasibility study.
Gerd Kortemeyer Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 19 , 020163 (2023)
AI tools will likely soon be capable of replacing human graders of student problem solutions in introductory physics.
Collaborative physics teachers: Enhancing the use of the laboratory through action research in a community of learners
Marta Carli and Ornella Pantano Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 19 , 020162 (2023)
A successful model of in-service physics teacher professional development that is built on action research within a community of practice.
Encouraging students to understand the 1D wave equation
Muhammad Aswin Rangkuti and Ricardo Karam Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 19 , 020161 (2023)
Helping students develop a deeper understanding of the 1D wave equation.
Critical issues in statistical causal inference for observational physics education research.
Vidushi Adlakha and Eric Kuo Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 19 , 020160 (2023)
A starting point for researchers to learn more about the causal inference methods and analysis techniques that have been developed outside the field of PER.
Meet new prper associate editor eric brewe, june 30, 2023.
Dr. Eric Brewe is a Professor in Physics and Science Education at Drexel University. Much of his research into the teaching and learning of physics at the university level is focused on the Modeling Instruction method. Dr. Brewe publishes frequently in PRPER and has received significant external funding to support his research. He is an APS Fellow and has served as Chair of the APS Education Policy Committee and Chair of the APS Topical Group on Physics Education Research.
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March 20, 2023.
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Restructuring classes can level the playing field, september 6, 2023.
A study of university-level physics classes shows that changes in course structure can help to eliminate grade gaps between student groups with different races, ethnicities, or genders.
Feature on: David J. Webb and Cassandra A. Paul Phys. Rev. Phys. Educ. Res. 19 , 020126 (2023)
Examining racial diversity and identity in physical review physics education research, july 1, 2020.
In the following special collection from Physical Review Physics Education Research , authors examine and highlight racial diversity, specifically how Black physicists and people of color navigate within the physics community at large.
Editorial: Announcing the PRPER Statistical Modeling Review Committee (SMRC)
November 22, 2022.
Lead Editor, Charles Henderson, announces PRPER’s development of the Statistical Modeling Review Committee (SMRC) to help support high-quality statistical modeling techniques.
Editorial: Research on Advancing Equity Is Critical for Physics
April 11, 2022.
PRPER Lead Editor, Charles Henderson, and APS Editor in Chief, Michael Thoennessen, discuss the vital importance of offering an inclusive and welcoming environment to the physics community.
Editorial: Call for Papers Focused Collection of Physical Review Physics Education Research Instructional labs: Improving traditions and new directions
November 17, 2021.
Physics is an experimental science. Instructional laboratories where students conduct experiments, analyze data, arrive at conclusions, and communicate findings have been around for over a century. Every physics department has labs of different levels: from introductory to advanced, for majors and nonmajors, with real equipment or virtual.
Editorial: Call for Papers Focused Collection of Physical Review Physics Education Research Qualitative Methods in PER: A Critical Examination
August 4, 2021.
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Special Collection on Curriculum Development: Theory into Design
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Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Phase diagrams and superconductivity of ternary ca–al–h compounds under high pressure †.
* Corresponding authors
b State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
The search for high-temperature superconductors in hydrides under high pressure has always been a research hotspot. Hydrogen-based superconductors offer an avenue to achieve the long-sought goal of superconductivity at room temperature. Here we systematically explored the high-pressure phase diagram, electronic properties, lattice dynamics and superconductivity of the ternary Ca–Al–H system using ab initio methods. At 80 GPa, CaAlH 5 transforms from Cmcm to P 2 1 / m phase. Both of Cmcm -CaAlH 5 and Pnnm -CaAl 2 H 8 are semiconductors. At 200 GPa, P 4/ mmm -CaAlH 7 and a metastable compound Immm -Ca 2 AlH 12 were found. Furthermore, P 4/ mmm -CaAlH 7 shows obvious softening of the high frequency vibration modes, which improves the strength of electron–phonon coupling. Therefore, a superconducting transition temperature T c of 71 K is generated in P 4/ mmm -CaAlH 7 at 50 GPa. In addition, the thermodynamic metastable Immm -Ca 2 AlH 12 exhibits a superconducting transition temperature of 118 K at 250 GPa. These results are very useful for the experimental searching of new high- T c superconductors in ternary hydrides. Our work may provide an opportunity to search for high T c superconductors at lower pressure.
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Phase diagrams and superconductivity of ternary Ca–Al–H compounds under high pressure
M. Xu, D. Duan, M. Du, W. Zhao, D. An, H. Song and T. Cui, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. , 2023, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D3CP03952H
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Indian Journal of Physics
Indian Journal of Physics is being published by the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) since 1926. Sir C. V. Raman was the founder and first editor. The second volume of the Journal published his famous article "A New Radiation", reporting the discovery of Raman Effect. In India, this is the oldest journal in Physics and the contributors are from all over the world. The journal is devoted to the publication of original scientific research results in the form of full papers and short notes. New preliminary work of importance is considered for publication under the Rapid Communications section. It also publishes invited Review Articles from time to time. The Journal emphasizes both fundamental and applied research works in Physics. In addition, Special issues are published by the journal, which may be themed around a current topic in physics. A special issue can be dedicated to a distinguish scientist or it can mark a particular event. Indian Journal of Physics is published monthly, containing 14 regular issues in a year from January to December.
- Subham Majumdar
Issue 14, December 2023
Classical and non-classical symmetries of time-fractional navier–stokes equation.
- S. Gimnitz Simon
- Content type: Original Paper
- Published: 01 December 2023
Modelling the propagation of electromagnetic plane waves in lossless, nonmagnetic multilayer thin films using polynomial model
- Mohammed K. M. Elhabbash
- Mohd Mahadi Halim
- Tiem Leong Yoon
- Published: 25 November 2023
Resonant second-harmonic generation in an array of magnetized anharmonic carbon nanotubes
Authors (first, second and last of 5).
- Shivani Vij
- Sandeep Kumar
- Vikramjeet Singh
- Published: 22 November 2023
Theoretical study of upper critical magnetic field in superconductor UTe 2
- Habtamu Anagaw Muluneh
- Gebregziabher Kahsay
- Tamiru Negussie Wondim
- Published: 21 November 2023
Multi-source thermal model describing multi-region structure of transverse momentum spectra of identified particles and parameter dynamics of system evolution in relativistic collisions
Authors (first, second and last of 4).
- K. K. Olimov
Editors' choice articles.
The Editors are pleased to announce our new online journal feature: Editors' Choice. Editorial Choice articles are freely available to all readers for a month.
Call for Papers: SI: Physical Views of Cellular Processes: A Special issue in Biophysics
Guest Editors :
Dr. Raja Paul, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, India
Dr. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India
Submission Deadline : 31st August 2021
Call for Papers: Statistical Physics and Complex Systems
Guest Editors: Deepak Dhar - Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune, India Soumen Roy - Bose Institute, Kolkata, India
Submission deadline: May 31st, 2023
Call for Papers: Particle Physics post Glashow Weinberg Salam (GWS) model ― A Special Issue
Guest Editors: Dilip Kumar, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, India, [email protected] Sourov Roy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, India, [email protected] Submission Deadline: 31st May 2022
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Collection 10 March 2022
Top 100 in Physics
This collection highlights our most downloaded* physics papers published in 2021. Featuring authors from around the world, these papers showcase valuable research from an international community.
*Data obtained from SN Inights, which is based on Digital Science's Dimensions.
A Model of the Cosmos in the ancient Greek Antikythera Mechanism
- Tony Freeth
- David Higgon
- Adam Wojcik
Divergent reflections around the photon sphere of a black hole
- Albert Sneppen
Visible blue light inhibits infection and replication of SARS-CoV-2 at doses that are well-tolerated by human respiratory tissue
- Nathan Stasko
- Jacob F. Kocher
- Adam S. Cockrell
Atmospheric wave energy of the 2020 August 4 explosion in Beirut, Lebanon, from ionospheric disturbances
- Bhaskar Kundu
- Batakrushna Senapati
- Kosuke Heki
Atmospheric ionization and cloud radiative forcing
- Henrik Svensmark
- Jacob Svensmark
- Nir J. Shaviv
Exploring nine simultaneously occurring transients on April 12th 1950
- Beatriz Villarroel
- Geoffrey W. Marcy
- Lars Mattsson
Neon-green fluorescence in the desert gecko Pachydactylus rangei caused by iridophores
- David Prötzel
- Mark D. Scherz
Tsunami generation potential of a strike-slip fault tip in the westernmost Mediterranean
- J. M. González-Vida
Action potentials induce biomagnetic fields in carnivorous Venus flytrap plants
- Anne Fabricant
- Geoffrey Z. Iwata
- Dmitry Budker
‘Conjugate’ coseismic surface faulting related with the 29 December 2020, Mw 6.4, Petrinja earthquake (Sisak-Moslavina, Croatia)
- Emanuele Tondi
- Anna Maria Blumetti
- Tiziano Volatili
The suitability of smartphone camera sensors for detecting radiation
- Yehia H. Johary
- Jamie Trapp
- A. Sulieman
Potential design problems for ITER fusion device
- A. Hassanein
Three-dimensional tonotopic mapping of the human cochlea based on synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging
- Luke Helpard
- Sumit Agrawal
Lipid bilayer degradation induced by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as revealed by neutron reflectometry
- Alessandra Luchini
- Samantha Micciulla
- Giovanna Fragneto
Optical quantum technologies with hexagonal boron nitride single photon sources
- Akbar Basha Dhu-al-jalali-wal-ikram Shaik
- Penchalaiah Palla
Greece and Turkey Shaken by African tectonic retreat
- Jiannan Meng
- Ozan Sinoplu
Quantum-circuit black hole lasers
- Haruna Katayama
Monitoring geological storage of CO 2 : a new approach
- Manzar Fawad
- Nazmul Haque Mondol
Observation of frequency-uncorrelated photon pairs generated by counter-propagating spontaneous parametric down-conversion
- Yi-Chen Liu
- Dong-Jie Guo
- Shi-Ning Zhu
A divide-and-conquer algorithm for quantum state preparation
- Israel F. Araujo
- Daniel K. Park
- Adenilton J. da Silva
Graphene oxide loaded with tumor-targeted peptide and anti-cancer drugs for cancer target therapy
Supercapacitors based on Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene extracted from supernatant and current collectors passivated by CVD-graphene
- Sunil Kumar
- Malik Abdul Rehman
Detection of biological signals from a live mammalian muscle using an early stage diamond quantum sensor
- James Luke Webb
- Luca Troise
- Ulrik Lund Andersen
Exploring rare cellular activity in more than one million cells by a transscale scope
- T. Ichimura
- T. Kakizuka
Evidence for a spin acoustic surface plasmon from inelastic atom scattering
- M. Bernasconi
Characteristics and electrochemical performances of silicon/carbon nanofiber/graphene composite films as anode materials for binder-free lithium-ion batteries
- Jin-Yeong Choi
- Chang-Seop Lee
Elastocaloric-effect-induced adiabatic magnetization in paramagnetic salts due to the mutual interactions
- Lucas Squillante
- Isys F. Mello
- Mariano de Souza
Biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) from citrus fruit have anti-bacterial activities
- Ghalia Batool Alvi
- Muhammad Shahid Iqbal
- Muhammad Imran Qadir
Inverse design of photonic meta-structure for beam collimation in on-chip sensing
- Robin Singh
- Brian W. Anthony
Source location of volcanic earthquakes and subsurface characterization using fiber-optic cable and distributed acoustic sensing system
- Takeshi Nishimura
- Kentaro Emoto
- Tsunehisa Kimura
Simulating an ultra-broadband concept for Exawatt-class lasers
- Zhaoyang Li
- Yoshiaki Kato
- Junji Kawanaka
Extremely low-energy ARPES of quantum well states in cubic-GaN/AlN and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures
- Mahdi Hajlaoui
- Stefano Ponzoni
- Mirko Cinchetti
Discrepancy of particle passage in 101 mask batches during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic in Germany
- Lukas T. Hirschwald
- Stefan Herrmann
- John Linkhorst
Utilizing distributed acoustic sensing and ocean bottom fiber optic cables for submarine structural characterization
- Jonathan B. Ajo-Franklin
Hybrid halide perovskite neutron detectors
- Pavao Andričević
- Gábor Náfrádi
- László Forró
A non-volatile cryogenic random-access memory based on the quantum anomalous Hall effect
- Shamiul Alam
- Md Shafayat Hossain
- Ahmedullah Aziz
Compact solid-state optical phased array beam scanners based on polymeric photonic integrated circuits
- Sung-Moon Kim
- Min-Cheol Oh
Non-destructive methods for fruit quality evaluation
- Ana-Maria Bratu
- Cristina Popa
- Mioara Petrus
Salvadora persica mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial efficacy
- Hammad Arshad
- Muhammad A. Sami
- Umer Hassan
Self-assembled graphene-based microfibers with eclectic optical properties
- Mahdi Ghamsari
- Tayyebeh Madrakian
- Mazaher Ahmadi
Ultrahigh-speed point scanning two-photon microscopy using high dynamic range silicon photomultipliers
- Vincent D. Ching-Roa
- Eben M. Olson
- Michael G. Giacomelli
Direct visualization of virus removal process in hollow fiber membrane using an optical microscope
- Yoshiyuki Sawamura
- Takayuki Nishizaka
Unidirectional propagation of the Bloch surface wave excited by the spinning magnetic dipole in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab
- Li-Ming Zhao
- Yun-Song Zhou
In depth characterisation of the biomolecular coronas of polymer coated inorganic nanoparticles with differential centrifugal sedimentation
- André Perez-Potti
- Hender Lopez
- Marco P. Monopoli
Aluminum doped zinc oxide deposited by atomic layer deposition and its applications to micro/nano devices
- Nguyen Van Toan
- Truong Thi Kim Tuoi
- Takahito Ono
Role of landslides on the volume balance of the Nepal 2015 earthquake sequence
- A. Valagussa
- P. Frattini
- G. B. Crosta
Polarization control of THz emission using spin-reorientation transition in spintronic heterostructure
- Dinar Khusyainov
- Sergei Ovcharenko
- Vladimir Preobrazhensky
Functional and structural ophthalmic imaging using noncontact multimodal photoacoustic remote sensing microscopy and optical coherence tomography
- Zohreh Hosseinaee
- Nima Abbasi
- Parsin Haji Reza
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles for the fabrication of non cytotoxic and antibacterial metallic polymer based nanocomposite system
- Asma Ansari
- Afsheen Aman
Exceptional antibacterial and cytotoxic potency of monodisperse greener AgNPs prepared under optimized pH and temperature
- Muhammad Riaz
- Vishal Mutreja
- Jeongwon Park
Magnetic nozzle radiofrequency plasma thruster approaching twenty percent thruster efficiency
- Kazunori Takahashi
Local scattering ultrasound imaging
- Alexander Velichko
- Eduardo Lopez Villaverde
- Anthony J. Croxford
A KHz frequency cold atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet for the emission of O( 1 S) auroral lines in ambient air
- E. M. Aguirre
- G. Veda Prakash
Influence of plasma treatment on SiO 2 /Si and Si 3 N 4 /Si substrates for large-scale transfer of graphene
- M. Lukosius
Stray light characterization with ultrafast time-of-flight imaging
- L. Clermont
Ultra-high rate of temperature increment from superparamagnetic nanoparticles for highly efficient hyperthermia
- Jae-Hyeok Lee
- Sang-Koog Kim
Systematic THz study of the substrate effect in limiting the mobility of graphene
- Samantha Scarfe
- Jean-Michel Ménard
Robotic fabrication of high-quality lamellae for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy
- Hideyo Tsurusawa
- Nobuto Nakanishi
- Teruyasu Mizoguchi
Fungus-mediated green synthesis of nano-silver using Aspergillus sydowii and its antifungal/antiproliferative activities
- Dongyang Wang
- Yanmin Zhou
Asymptotic freedom and noninteger dimensionality
- Subhash Kak
Origin of light instability in amorphous IGZO thin-film transistors and its suppression
- Mallory Mativenga
- Farjana Haque
- Jae Gwang Um
Effect of coronavirus lockdowns on the ambient seismic noise levels in Gujarat, northwest India
- Ketan Singha Roy
- Jyoti Sharma
- M. Ravi Kumar
New seismological data from the Calabrian arc reveal arc-orthogonal extension across the subduction zone
- Tiziana Sgroi
- Alina Polonia
- Luca Gasperini
Revisiting cosmic microwave background radiation using blackbody radiation inversion
- Koustav Konar
- Kingshuk Bose
Interferometric measurements of refractive index and dispersion at high pressure
- Yong-Jae Kim
- Peter M. Celliers
- Marius Millot
Heterogeneously integrated ITO plasmonic Mach–Zehnder interferometric modulator on SOI
- Rishi Maiti
- Volker J. Sorger
Hotspot generation for unique identification with nanomaterials
- Nema M. Abdelazim
- Matthew J. Fong
- Robert J. Young
Evaluating very high energy electron RBE from nanodosimetric pBR322 plasmid DNA damage
- K. L. Small
- N. T. Henthorn
- R. M. Jones
OAM light propagation through tissue
- Netanel Biton
- Judy Kupferman
- Shlomi Arnon
Ligand modulation of the conformational dynamics of the A 2A adenosine receptor revealed by single-molecule fluorescence
- Dennis D. Fernandes
- Chris Neale
- Claudiu C. Gradinaru
Simulation of the Bell inequality violation based on quantum steering concept
- Mohsen Ruzbehani
State selective classical electron capture cross sections in Be 4+ + H(1 s ) collisions with mimicking quantum effect
- Iman Ziaeian
- Károly Tőkési
FoldAffinity: binding affinities from nDSF experiments
- Stephan Niebling
- Osvaldo Burastero
- María García-Alai
Preseismic atmospheric radon anomaly associated with 2018 Northern Osaka earthquake
- Yumi Yasuoka
- Takahiro Mukai
Wide-field fluorescent nanodiamond spin measurements toward real-time large-area intracellular thermometry
- Yushi Nishimura
- Keisuke Oshimi
- Yoshio Teki
Large scale self-assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles on deformed graphene templates
- Matthew T. Gole
- SungWoo Nam
Green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode exhibiting highest external quantum efficiency with ultra-thin undoped emission layer
- Shin Woo Kang
- Dong-Hyun Baek
- Young Wook Park
Tsunami detection by GPS-derived ionospheric total electron content
- Mahesh N. Shrivastava
- Ajeet K. Maurya
- Rafael Aranguiz
Scalable distributed gate-model quantum computers
- Laszlo Gyongyosi
- Sandor Imre
Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered AlGaAs-on-insulator waveguides
- Matteo Clerici
Challenges in nanofabrication for efficient optical metasurfaces
- Adelin Patoux
- Gonzague Agez
- Arnaud Arbouet
The first observation of 4D tomography measurement of plasma structures and fluctuations
- Chanho Moon
- Kotaro Yamasaki
- Akihide Fujisawa
X-ray fan beam coded aperture transmission and diffraction imaging for fast material analysis
- Stefan Stryker
- Joel A. Greenberg
- Anuj J. Kapadia
Mid-infrared photoacoustic gas monitoring driven by a gas-filled hollow-core fiber laser
- Yazhou Wang
- Yuyang Feng
- Christos Markos
A photoanode with hierarchical nanoforest TiO 2 structure and silver plasmonic nanoparticles for flexible dye sensitized solar cell
- Brishty Deb Choudhury
- Mohammed Jasim Uddin
Accurate and confident prediction of electron beam longitudinal properties using spectral virtual diagnostics
Magnetoactive acoustic metamaterials based on nanoparticle-enhanced diaphragm
- Xingwei Tang
- Shanjun Liang
Evidence for intermolecular forces involved in ladybird beetle tarsal setae adhesion
- Naoe Hosoda
- Mari Nakamoto
- Stanislav N. Gorb
Active auroral arc powered by accelerated electrons from very high altitudes
- Yoshizumi Miyoshi
- Tomoaki Hori
Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using white-rot fungus Anamorphous Bjerkandera sp. R1: influence of silver nitrate concentration and fungus growth time
- Jerónimo Osorio-Echavarría
- Juliana Osorio-Echavarría
- Natalia Andrea Gómez-Vanegas
Cone-beam CT image quality improvement using Cycle-Deblur consistent adversarial networks (Cycle-Deblur GAN) for chest CT imaging in breast cancer patients
- Hui-Ju Tien
- Hsin-Chih Yang
- Jyh-Cheng Chen
Increment in the volcanic unrest and number of eruptions after the 2012 large earthquakes sequence in Central America
- Gino González
- Eisuke Fujita
- Dmitri Rouwet
Quantum Szilard engine for the fractional power-law potentials
- Ekrem Aydiner
A theoretical design of evanescent wave biosensors based on gate-controlled graphene surface plasmon resonance
- Ruey-Bing Hwang
NIR self-powered photodetection and gate tunable rectification behavior in 2D GeSe/MoSe 2 heterojunction diode
- Muhammad Hussain
- Syed Hassan Abbas Jaffery
- Jongwan Jung
2D materials coated on etched optical fibers as humidity sensor
- Hossein Mokhtari
- Nazanin Shakiba
Spiral sound-diffusing metasurfaces based on holographic vortices
- Noé Jiménez
- Jean-Philippe Groby
- Vicent Romero-García
Investigating the optical clearing effects of 50% glycerol in ex vivo human skin by harmonic generation microscopy
- Jia-Hong Lai
- Chi-Kuang Sun
Penetration of MeV electrons into the mesosphere accompanying pulsating aurorae
- K. Hosokawa
- S. Nakamura
Nanodomain structure of single crystalline nickel oxide
- A. A. Mazilkin
- S. I. Bozhko
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Room-Temperature Superconductor Discovery Is Retracted
It was the second paper led by Ranga P. Dias, a researcher at the University of Rochester, that the journal Nature has retracted.
By Kenneth Chang
Nature, one of the most prestigious journals in scientific publishing, on Tuesday retracted a high-profile paper it had published in March that claimed the discovery of a superconductor that worked at everyday temperatures.
It was the second superconductor paper involving Ranga P. Dias, a professor of mechanical engineering and physics at the University of Rochester in New York State, to be retracted by the journal in just over a year. It joined an unrelated paper retracted by another journal in which Dr. Dias was a key author.
Dr. Dias and his colleagues’ research is the latest in a long list of claims of room-temperature superconductors that have failed to pan out. But the retraction raised uncomfortable questions for Nature about why the journal’s editors publicized the research after they had already scrutinized and retracted an earlier paper from the same group.
A spokesman for Dr. Dias said that the scientist denied allegations of research misconduct. “Professor Dias intends to resubmit the scientific paper to a journal with a more independent editorial process,” the representative said.
First discovered in 1911, superconductors can seem almost magical — they conduct electricity without resistance. However, no known materials are superconductors in everyday conditions. Most require ultracold temperatures, and recent advances toward superconductors that function at higher temperatures require crushing pressures.
A superconductor that works at everyday temperatures and pressures could find use in M.R.I. scanners, novel electronic devices and levitating trains.
Superconductors unexpectedly became a viral topic on social networks over the summer when a different group of scientists, in South Korea, also claimed to have discovered a room-temperature superconductor, named LK-99. Within a couple of weeks, the excitement died away after other scientists were unable to confirm the superconductivity observations and came up with plausible alternative explanations.
Even though it was published in a high-profile journal, Dr. Dias’s claim of a room-temperature superconductor did not set off euphoria like LK-99 did because many scientists in the field already regarded his work with doubt.
In the Nature paper published in March, Dr. Dias and his colleagues reported that they had discovered a material — lutetium hydride with some nitrogen added — that was able to superconduct electricity at temperatures of up to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. It still required pressure of 145,000 pounds per square inch, which is not difficult to apply in a laboratory. The material took on a red hue when squeezed, leading Dr. Dias to nickname it “reddmatter” after a substance in a “Star Trek” movie .
Less than three years earlier, Nature published a paper from Dr. Dias and many of the same scientists. It described a different material that they said was also a superconductor although only at crushing pressures of nearly 40 million pounds per square inch. But other researchers questioned some of the data in the paper. After an investigation, Nature agreed, retracting the paper in September 2022 over the objections of the authors.
In August of this year, the journal Physical Review Letters retracted a 2021 paper by Dr. Dias that described intriguing electrical properties, although not superconductivity, in another chemical compound, manganese sulfide.
James Hamlin, a professor of physics at the University of Florida, told Physical Review Letters’ editors that the curves in one of the paper’s figures describing electrical resistance in manganese sulfide looked similar to graphs in Dr. Dias’s doctoral thesis that described the behavior of a different material.
Outside experts enlisted by the journal agreed that the data looked suspiciously similar, and the paper was retracted . Unlike the earlier Nature retraction, all nine of Dr. Dias’s co-authors agreed to the retraction. Dr. Dias was the lone holdout and maintained that the paper accurately portrayed the research findings.
In May, Dr. Hamlin and Brad J. Ramshaw, a professor of physics at Cornell University, sent editors at Nature their concerns about the lutetium hydride data in the March paper.
After the retraction by Physical Review Letters, most of the authors of the lutetium hydride paper concluded that the research from their paper was flawed too.
In a letter dated Sept. 8, eight of the 11 authors asked for the Nature paper to be retracted .
“Dr. Dias has not acted in good faith in regard to the preparation and submission of the manuscript,” they told the Nature editors.
The writers of the letter included five recent graduate students who worked in Dr. Dias’s lab, as well as Ashkan Salamat, a professor of physics at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, who collaborated with Dr. Dias on the two earlier retracted papers. Dr. Dias and Dr. Salamat founded Unearthly Materials, a company that was meant to turn the superconducting discoveries into commercial products.
Dr. Salamat, who was the company’s president and chief executive, is no longer an employee there. He did not respond to a request for comment on the retraction.
In the retraction notice published on Tuesday, Nature said that the eight authors who wrote the letter in September expressed the view that “the published paper does not accurately reflect the provenance of the investigated materials, the experimental measurements undertaken and the data-processing protocols applied.”
The issues, those authors said, “undermine the integrity of the published paper.”
Dr. Dias and two other authors, former students of his, “have not stated whether they agree or disagree with this retraction,” the notice said. A Nature spokeswoman said they did not respond to the proposed retraction.
“This has been a deeply frustrating situation,” Karl Ziemelis, the chief editor for applied and physical sciences at Nature, said in a statement.
Mr. Ziemelis defended the journal’s handling of the paper. “Indeed, as is so often the case, the highly qualified expert reviewers we selected raised a number of questions about the original submission, which were largely resolved in later revisions,” he said. “This is how peer review works.”
He added, “What the peer-review process cannot detect is whether the paper as written accurately reflects the research as it was undertaken.”
For Dr. Ramshaw, the retraction provided validation. “When you are looking into someone else’s work, you always wonder whether you are just seeing things or overinterpreting,” he said.
The disappointments of LK-99 and Dr. Dias’s claims may not deter other scientists from investigating possible superconductors. Two decades ago, a scientist at Bell Labs, J. Hendrik Schön, published a series of striking findings, including novel superconductors. Investigations showed that he had made up most of his data.
That did not stymie later major superconductor discoveries. In 2014, a group led by Mikhail Eremets, of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Germany, showed that hydrogen-containing compounds are superconductors at surprisingly warm temperatures when squeezed under ultrahigh pressures. Those findings are still broadly accepted.
Russell J. Hemley, a professor of physics and chemistry at the University of Illinois Chicago who followed up Dr. Eremets’s work with experiments that found another material that was also a superconductor at ultrahigh pressure conditions, continues to believe Dr. Dias’s lutetium hydride findings. In June, Dr. Hemley and his collaborators reported that they had also measured the apparent vanishing of electrical resistance in a sample that Dr. Dias had provided, and on Tuesday, Dr. Hemley said he remained confident that the findings would be reproduced by other scientists.
After the Physical Review Letters retraction, the University of Rochester confirmed that it had started a “comprehensive investigation” by experts not affiliated with the school. A university spokeswoman said that it had no plans to make the findings of the investigation public.
The University of Rochester has removed YouTube videos it produced in March that featured university officials lauding Dr. Dias’s research as a breakthrough.
Kenneth Chang has been at The Times since 2000, writing about physics, geology, chemistry, and the planets. Before becoming a science writer, he was a graduate student whose research involved the control of chaos. More about Kenneth Chang