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Building science of indian temple architecture

by Shilpa Sompur

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This piece was written as a response to Michael Meister’s review of The Temple Architecture of India published in CAA reviews, 23 April 2008 The version below is a longer version of and was posted along with Michael’s review as a ‘discussion piece’ on the ACSAA website.

This piece wasResponse to Michael Meister's review of The Temple Architecture of India published in CAA reviews

MD Mazed Chowdhury

Every style of building construction reflects a clearly distinctive basic principle that represents a particular culture and era. In this context, the Indian Hindu temples are not only the abode of God and place of worship, but they are also the cradle of knowledge, art, architecture and culture. A temple structure is considered to be everlasting and it should signify the art, architectural and cultural milieu of the period built. It also helps to retain and expand the social and cultural values of Hinduism among the people from one generation to another. This study intends to show that, a temple structure irrespective of its value can act as an artefact of the present generation's culture, knowledge and technological developments.

Architectural Interpretation of Hindu Temple in Indian context

B. K. DAS , Naveen Nishant

2022, Journal of Northeastern University

Hindu temple architecture is known from the earliest time in the world as per Hindu philosophy. Various ancient Hindu texts like Epics, Puranas, Vedas, Mayamata, Brihat Samhita, etc. inculcates the subject called Vastu. The key source for the Hindu temple architecture is derived from the magical geometry i.e. Vastupurusha Mandala. The structure of the temple building acts as a single human body. It is a metaphysical philosophy which deals beyond the reality. The Vastu plays a vital role during construction of temples and building structures. The formation of any ancient Indian structures is possible due to some guidance in terms of units which can be evaluated and fixed easily by the help of traditional system of measurement. The importance of traditional measurement unit is framed rigidly in the paper for understanding the geometry of the structures with better perception. The main objectives of the research paper are (1) to study the architectural geometry from its origin and its measurement unit, (2) to explore the evolution of Vastushastra and its types, (3) to analyse the interlinkages between the Vastupurusha Mandala with temple building and temple with Purusha (human being). Hence this research paper is a unique in its own way for describing the architectural design pattern of Hindu temples in a systematic manner. At last but not least the proposed findings and conclusion of the research paper based on the Vastushastra is that the evolution of the concerned ancient building structures can be easily determined on the basis of traditional measurement system. The magical diagram can be taken into account in various fields from architecture to planning level with sustainable approach. Through achieving the certain objectives help to depict the way of designing, constructing and planning any Hindu temple structures at present scenario in a confined manner.


2001, The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians

Tradition and Transformation: Continuity and Ingenuity in the Temples of Karnataka

2023, Embodied Dependencies and Freedoms: Artistic Communities and Patronage in Asia

To what extent have the architects of temples in India been constrained by canonical texts? The degree to which any artist can be free from the norms and conventions of their art is a huge question. In the case of an architectural tradition like those responsible for temple building in medieval India, passed down through lineages and from master to pupil, dependent on patronage and large resources, invested with social and political significance, and held to be sacred, the meaning of 'artistic freedom' is all the more questionable. The architects of Indian temples, moreover, developed complex architectural languages which I would characterise not so much as 'strict' as highly structured. If temples can be considered an art form, then a particular form of temple is analogous to, say, a sonnet in poetry, where creating something new within the given pattern is the whole point, and to stray too far from it is no longer to write a sonnet. Indian temple forms follow certain modes, for each of which is developed a variety of particular types. Typology, a ubiquitous preoccupation of the texts, is also a conspicuous aspect of temple architecture itself from the moment around the fifth century CE when a repertoire of basic shrine types inherited from timber construction began to be translated into masonry. Combining existing types to create new types became a fundamental design principle. Constraints as well as creative possibilities were thus inherent in the tradition, the medium. Someone carrying out the role of a temple architect, though not without agency, was in all these respects dependent. Such dependence must be borne in mind as we examine the more specific question of constraints imposed by texts.

Dependence and Freedom in the Theory and Practice of Indian Temple Architecture

Kiran Bettadapur

2023, THE RUBRIC OF HINDU TEMPLE ARCHITECTURAL STYLES: A Study of the Evolutional Diversity in Typological Idioms

Local traditions govern temple architectural typologies; often, structural styles and building methods were progressively blended depending on congregation of experts and promotion of construction activity. While the texts enumerate many nuances in temple architectural styles, only about twenty-odd types dominate the landscape. Early natural caves and frescoed caverns, inspired by Buddhist prayer halls, evolved to rock-cut caves, which progressively incorporated iconographic objects and sculptures. The form evolved from simple, functional structures to imposing, magnificent buildings, which indicate progression of elaboration of and opulence in rituals― it reflects complexities in symbolism too. Local materials and influences determined regional preferences for designs, which evidence mutual inductance and overlapping of styles. This paper documents the diverse and numerous Hindu temple architecture styles based on not only the designs and traditions that are more recurrently featured in ancient texts, but also the exemplars and archetypes that are most commonly observed in ancient temple structures.

Journal Paper The Rubric of Hindu Temple Architecture v.F

IAEME Publication


Generally, architecture can be termed as a field of art in building, a structure designed by human beings. Therefore, the grandeur and the height of a civilization is measured by the buildings it left behind which include religious buildings. This can be seen through Indian architecture that appeared as a result of the emergence of Buddhism and Hinduism. Between the main objectives of this study is to discuss the concept, goals and philosophy found in the architecture of India. In addition, the study also discusses the characteristics and elements of Indian architecture made up of Buddhist and Hindu architecture that has influenced some of the architecture of other buildings in the world. In this writing, the authors used qualitative methodology focusing on research on the analysis of documents and observations. The finding shows that the concept and philosophy of Indian architecture has been largely influenced by nation and world civilization. The study also identified the characters and elements. system along the western coast of India.


Nichaporn Atsavaboonsap

Modern architecture in India has represented preserving its cultural heritage that defined a modern Indian architecture that does not disregard conventional Indian architecture but using traditional elements and religious belief corporate with design philosophy that can also be used in contemporary Indian architecture.B.V. Doshi and other Indian architects have attempted to define and adapt Western architecture to a traditional form of Indian architecture that considers and represents society, civilization, and nature by typology, environment, sun, and wind.

Nichaporn Atsavaboonsap INDA: International Program in Design and Architecture Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University 2541321 Eastern + Western Philosophy and Paradigms in Architectural Design Assignment: Final Research Paper

Rana P.B. SINGH , Sonali Jaiswal

2018, Kardameshvara (Kashi) temple, a Religious Heritage from India: Sacred Landscape, Architectural Designs and Perspectives.

Banaras (Varanasi), known as the cultural capital of India, enriched by more than three thousand temples; most of them eulogised in the puranic literature and are linked by the pilgrimage routes. Among several of such pilgrimage routes Panchakroshi is the most popular and well documented too. This route is divided into five parts symbolised with night halt stations; the first one is Kardameshvara, recording continuity since CE 10th century. This is the only surviving and functional temple with architectural grandeur and cultural expression with variety of images, viz. Hindus, Tantrics, Jains, Primordial, and auxiliaries. Notable heritage values of images are described and their landscape links are explained. The architectural and landscape characteristics, heritage values and related festivities make the temple of Kardameshvara as an example of mosaicness of culture and heritages (tangible, intangible, mixed). Taking in view the inclusive heritage development on the line of cultural sustainability, selected attributes are documented in terms of architecture and the surrounding landscapes. It is expected that this will help in preparation of overall development plan where heritage be taken as basic resource. Keywords: sacred landscape, symbolism, pilgrimage path, architectural design, religious heritage.

520.18. Singh, Rana P.B. and Jaiswal, Sonali (2018), Kardameshvara (Kashi) temple, a Religious Heritage from India: Sacred Landscape, Architectural Designs and Perspectives. Sthāpatyam, Indian Journal of Architecture & Allied Sciences (ISSN: 2349-2368), Vol. 5 (3), Sept.-Nov.: pp. 47- 70.

meltem vatan

This chapter is going to deal with the evolution of structural systems; traditional structural systems, modern structural systems and more than traditional approach to the structural systems. Beyond this, even though this chapter is related with structural systems as an integral part of architectural design, it is also going to explore the link between culture, traditional structural techniques, and influence of culture, cultural beliefs and local materials, natural constraints as local available materials, climate effects and disaster risks as drivers affecting the evolution of structural systems. Structural principles of traditional construction techniques will be analyzed. The link between modern buildings and their structural systems and traditional construction techniques will be discussed by tracing modern buildings and structural systems in terms of their evolution. The subject matter will be approached in a descriptive manner. The examples given will be used to trace the link between past and present as a way of associating cultural effect with the architectural uniqueness.

Evolution of Construction Systems: Cultural Effects On Traditional Structures and Their Reflection On Modern Building Construction


Paarija Saxena

Indian Architecture Notes 187 Indian Culture and Heritage Secondary Course

Dr. Uday Dokras

2020, Indo Nordic Author's Collective

Part 7 covers all other elements of Hindu temple architecture not covered in Parts 1-6

ELEMENTS OF INDIAN TEMPLES Part 7 of the Hindu Temple Architecture series Dr Uday Dokras

ayman zakaria

Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, New Delhi 2006

gerd mevissen

1996, Explorations in Art and Archaeology of South Asia: Essays Dedicated to N.G. Majumdar. Edited by Debala Mitra, pp. 477-512 & pls. 32.1-38

1996 - The suggestion of movement: a contribution to the study of chariot-shaped structures in Indian temple-architecture

Nupur Dasgupta


Agama Shastra And Temple Worship -Every facet of a traditional Agamic temple is rich in mystical significanc The Hindu temples are complex institutions. They represent the culmination of social and religious aspirations of a society. Temple is the focal point in the life of a community and often represents its pride, identity and unity. It is also the index of the community’s well-being. It draws into its fold people from its various segments and denominations; and binds them together. In smaller communities the temple apart from being a source of spiritual or religious comfort, also serves as centre for education and recreation.

Secrets of a Hindu Temple Part 5 of the Hindu temple Architecture series of papers

2022, Indo Npordic Author's Collective

Modern Builders of Massive and intricate Hindu Temples The BAPS===Photo Essay

The BAPS Modern Builders of Massive and intricate Temples Photo Essay

Crispin Branfoot

2022, arq: Architectural Research Quarterly 26.1, pp. 4–13

Indian Temple Architecture and Modernity: Practices, Knowledge Production, Methodologies (wth Megha Chand Inglis)

wasilah S I L A sahabuddin

This study aims to introduce the traditional architecture Toraja and Mamasa about form, function and ornament buildings and cultural are relatively similar in separate places. The method used in this study is "purposive sampling". This study also uses the method of literature studies. The results of this study indicate that traditional architecture in the process of formation of evolution until now based on empirical experience. In particular traditions of society is a reflection of culture, lifestyle, mindset of people and is suitable even one with nature and the environment. Keywords: cultural; buildings; evolution


Mehtap Özbayraktar

2014, Physical and Social Change and Transformation in Traditional houses of İzmit

Physical and Social Change and Transformation in Traditional houses of İzmit

Vasu Renganathan

The origin of the curvilinear superstructure in the Indian temple has been the subject of inquiry in the works of Indian temple architecture and it still remains a mystery to be proven, despite a number of solutions given based on scriptures and guesses. The principal reason for this ignorance, according to Simpson, is owing to the absence of monuments representing the steps by which the Hindu temple was developed to its complete form. 1 However, Chandra states that Coomaraswamy was the first to interpret the Hindu temple not only as a building providing shelter for the image and the worshippers but also as the image of the cosmos, the house of God and also his body. It represents in its parts the drama of disintegration and reintegration which is the essential theme of Indian myth and its ritual enactment in the sacrifice. 2

On the Development of Indian Temple Architectural Morphology and the Origin of Superstructure

Nikhil V Badrike , Kartiki Narkhede

2023, International Journal of Scientific Research in Engineering and Management (IJSREM)

History and literature denote the importance of symbols which represent Religion and architecture. As per cultural evolution, different symbols evolved in aesthetic form making them tangible. This paper focuses on religion that binds them together at a certain point and how it has its own values and elements in the shape that society and its people have given it. The role played by religion in architecture can be stretched back thousands of years ago. Religion arises as a necessity to understand various aspects of society and surrounding social activities, that reflect in complementing the scientific understanding of religious architecture and symbols. Religious architecture is the historic record of the way people express their faith. These old structures are the heritage of the country. The elements like religious symbolism come up with various beliefs, rituals, and scriptures from ancient times. These elements merged with the architectural style to form religious structures. Since the ancient era religion has been a major source of inspiration in architectural construction and architecture has concretized religion, thus spaces they shape support and reflect spiritual practices and religious beliefs. Indeed, the motive of each structure remains the same, varying its symbolism in each religion. The aim of this paper is to understand how all religious structures are connected to each other in various aspects.

Critical Evaluation of Architectural Rudiments from the Perspective of Religion

Himanshu Prabha Ray

Routledge Handbook of Hindu Temples

This handbook is a comprehensive study of the archaeology, social history and the cultural landscape of the Hindu temple. Perhaps the most recognizable of the material forms of Hinduism, temples are lived, dynamic spaces. They are significant sites for the creation of cultural heritage, both in the past and in the present. Drawing on historiographical surveys and in-depth case studies, the volume centres the material form of the Hindu temple as an entry point to study its many adaptations and transformations from the early centuries ce to the 20th century. It highlights the vibrancy and dynamism of the shrine in different locales and studies the active participation of the community for its establishment, maintenance and survival. The illustrated handbook takes a unique approach by focusing on the social base of the temple rather than its aesthetics or chronological linear development. It fills a significant gap in the study of Hinduism and will be an indispensable resource for scholars of archaeology, Hinduism, Indian history, religious studies, museum studies, South Asian history and Southeast Asian history.


Aydanur Yenel

2019, Architectural Continuity from the Past to the Future

Since the onset of settled life of mankind to the present day, cities have carried the traces of different historical periods, with the development of technology — with its being changed, transformed and shaped in the historical process. Due to the cultural tendencies of the modern age, we see that cities transform narratives, which constitute time, place, culture and building blocks of culture, entirely into a form of communication. The design problem deepens the issue based on the fact that architecture and engineering professions are creating new forms of life. The architecture of the future is becoming one of the phenomena that direct designers to develop visions, but also make them very concerned just as much. Evaluating the course of the profession of architecture and the quest of transforming what is done in the past by what to do in the future — by creating solutions to problems — are also one of the most important urban problems. Architectural conservation covers the process of designing a new additional and contemporary building within an urban site in the context of restoring the urban memory and identity, and enhancing awareness of the re-functioning of cultural heritage. The redesigning of historic architectural buildings was addressed in terms of architectural conservation and urban site to renew them and to modify their functions, in order to carry them to the present day, and thus, to the future, and to provide theoretical and practical information. The aim of this article was to integrate the idea of conserving a historical environment with a new design; to describe the contribution of conservation culture to urban culture while talking about the importance of conservation culture for “good architecture;” and to achieve successful results by the protection of local identity and the production of multi-dimensional solutions for urban and public aspects of architecture, urbanism, politics, conservation, memory and space. We focus on addressing concepts such as “historical environment,” “contemporary building,” and “sustainable historic building,” which are very important in the field of protection and architecture today. In addition, we focus on the examples of metropolises where there is a high consciousness of conservation, which are also prominent with their modern and contemporary additions and buildings with goals of creating plenty of space — from the architectural and design problems applied to the historic buildings in different cities that attract the attention of the world, to the urban and architectural history.

Proceedings of the 7th Structural Engineers World Congress 2019 (SEWC’19),  Architecture and Structure: From Past to Future, April 24-26 2019, İstanbul, Chapter I: Architectural Design, pp.45-58

Satwik Rayjada

Architects and Engineers from Ancient India has derived principles of construction and architecture based on experience, observation of natural phenomena and considering social and cultural aspect of India. These principles are aimed at developing built environment which is compatible for the inhabitants and extracting maximum benefits from nature. Various myths are prevailing regarding some principles which leads to superstitious behavior among people. These principles can be well explained using the modern scientific logic and knowledge. Scientific study of these principles should be done and they should be applied in contemporary practice. This study attempts to explore basic principles of Indian architecture and engineering based on Vastu Shastra (the ancient Indian building science) texts, such as Mayamattam, Samarangana Sutradhar, etc. An attempt is made to give scientific reason of some principles that can be adopted in modern practice of designing and construction easily for comfort and happiness of inhabitant.

Application of Ancient Indian Principles of Architecture and Engineering in Modern Practice

The Perspective Heaven Any student of architecture with reasonable skills in photography knows by instinct upon entering the precincts of an Islamic monument like the Taj Mahal, Agra, or the Bibi Ka Maqbara, Aurangabad that he has landed into perspective heaven. The perspective here is easily coaxed out of almost any angle. Point the camera in the right direction and the perspective lines are ready-made. The beautiful gardens with many layers of fountains, water passages, shrub lines, and footpaths straddle throughout the monument. The parallel and perpendicular lines that run across the precincts provide the third dimension to the photograph by creating depth in space. The geometrical designs crisscross in perfect symmetry in and around the monument framing it in a ready-made perspective from many angles.

Aesthetics Vs. Meaning: The Importance of Hindu Architecture

Asmita Basu

Journal of Heritage, Archaeology & Management (JHAM)  Volume 2 Issue I  June 2022

Architectural Research Quarterly

The article discusses an approach taken for the design of a new temple in Karnataka, India, to be built in the medieval ‘Hoysala’ style, which followed the Karnata Dravida tradition of temple architecture. This style is unfamiliar to present-day traditional temple builders in India. The design needs to be based on research into architectural history, of a kind that aims to relive the processes through which temples were designed, assimilating the architectural language and its principles. This kind of architectural history involves re-creation, and this kind of design can contribute to architectural history as ‘design research’. An application of such research is the reconstruction of temple designs from ruins. The temples can potentially be rebuilt, or they can be reconstructed graphically, and presented meaningfully on site. Re-creation of temples through drawing is also a key for understanding canonical Sanskrit texts on architecture. These texts are not illustrated but call for ...

Re-creation and self-creation in temple design

Dr. Ir. Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra, ST, SDs, MA, IPU, ASEAN Eng. , Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra

2020, Civil Engineering and Architecture

Meru has meaning as a symbol of Mount Mahameru, symbol of God and the universe that serves as a place of worship of the gods and ancestors. Meru is found in large temples in Bali, Indonesia with its trademark characteristic that the roof has a high overlapping reaching 10 meters or more with the number of roofs always odd so that Meru becomes a landmark in every temple in Bali. Meru is a very beautiful sacred building that was built based on the accuracy of proportions, the logic of construction techniques and the beauty of decoration, which holds fast to local wisdom based on Traditional Balinese Architecture. This study aims to explore the meaning and philosophy of Meru and why the construction of Meru as an earthquake resistant building. With a qualitative explorative study of primary data collection such as: surveys, observations and interviews and combined with secondary data in the form of old legacy writing, study shows that Meru not only has beauty as a sacred building but also is an earthquake-resistant building construction that has proven its reliability compared to other Hindu sacred buildings.

Meru as a Hindu Sacred Building Architecture with a High Roof and Resistant to Earthquakes in Bali, Indonesia

Kiran S A T Y A B O D H Kalamdani

Contemporary Architecture 10

Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra

2020, The Asian Institute of Research Journal of Social and Political Sciences

Padmasana architecture is part of traditional Balinese architecture, it is a sacred building that functions as God's sthana (place/position). The existence of symbols as religious expressions is very thick coloring the realization of padmasana architecture, a very diverse typology, and there are still many meanings that need to be expressed. Padmasana tiga is one of the most important types of padmasana buildings, manifested from three Padmasana, standing tall on a rectangular base. Its unique shape, different from other padmasana buildings, gives rise to diverse interpretations, thereby increasing the attractiveness of this building for research. Padmasana tiga is located in the main and largest temple in Bali, Besakih Temple, on the slopes of Mount Agung, Karangasem Regency, Bali Province. The purpose of this study is to reveal the padmasana tiga functions and their typology which are closely related to the teachings of Shiva Siddhanta, so that they can be better understood by...

The Function and Typology of the Padmasana Tiga Architecture in Besakih Temple, Bali Indonesia

Michael W Meister

1974, Artibus Asiae

A Note on the Superstructure of the Marhia Temple

Thornthan Sirichanyakul

2023, Thornthan Sirichanyakul

This research paper conducts a in-depth analysis of the complex and diverse relationship between architecture and art, with a focus on awareness whether they are related or distinct context. Acknowledging the diversity of opinions, preferences, and values held by individuals, this study explores how architects carefully design buildings to serve specific purposes, emphasizing the essential importance of understanding users’ needs over personal artistic expression. By looking into the problem-solving aspect of architecture, considering the role of personal experiences and tastes, and evaluating the presence of aesthetic elements, this research aims to deepen our understanding of the relationship between architecture and art, thereby addressing the fundamental question: “Is architecture a form of art?” Moreover, this research paper recognizes the importance of engaging in a scholarly dialogue and will argue against select articles that present contrasting viewpoints regarding the relationship between architecture and art. While these articles will be discussed in the subsequent sections, their detailed critique and refutation will be provided in the main body of the paper.

Thornthan Sirichanyakul INDA: International Program in Design and Architecture Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University 2541321 Eastern + Western Philosophy and Paradigms in Architectural Design Assignment: Final Research Paper

sneha chahal

Architecture as drawings

Abstract: Devadasi, the servant of the deity, was a maiden married to a deity before puberty and thus was the human bride of the celestial God. She lived on the temple premises as a dedicated caretaker and performed the religious duties of singing and dancing to please the deity. It is interesting to know why Devadasis were in temples and how they were groomed. My presentation focuses on the vital role of devadasis in influencing India's temple architecture. Also, it covers some contributions of Devadasis in preserving the traditional and classical art of dance and heralding the cultural elements of Bharat.

Role of Devadasis in the Evolution of Temple Architecture

George Taylor

2023, Civil Engineering and Architecture

The so-called Joglo is a type of traditional house (nDalem) architecture since Islamic era on the island of Java that is still used today in Indonesia. Joglo architecture is currently not only used for residential buildings but has developed into a multifunctional feature, and so the Joglo roof models have been used for office buildings, airports, hotels, and the like. The originally Joglo construction made of wood is thought to have been unknown in the past, namely during the Majapahit era or the end of the Hindu-Buddhist era. Through an approach to analyzing the type of architectural form, traces of this temple building can then be identified in the Joglo building, although in the form of abstraction of its elements. Javanese society basically has a tradition to uphold the culture of its ancestors, regardless of the beliefs held by the Javanese. Joglo architecture can be seen as a representation of the preservation of the temple architecture. The relationship between the temple and the joglo is indicated by the shape of the roof, intercropping elements, ornamentation and linearity of the building layout. This preservation is making modifications while still displaying important elements with different materials. As a result, preservation is not orientated to the physical-material but rather to the values of its meaning. The spirit of respecting the past through preservation has unconsciously imbued the architectural ideas involved, so that permanence in architectural preservation can be dynamic through the adaptation process.

A Study on the Relationship between Majapahit Temple and Joglo -nDalem Architecture as Preservation of Ancestral and Cultural Values

hossein aali

Tendency to show beauty and majesty in the human, arises from the beginning of artifact build ornate and beautiful. It covers Islamic architecture and decorative buildings. Decorative Islamic art, is one of the most important and effective component. The aim of this study was to investigate decorative brickwork at a number of sites in the central plateau of Iran's in Safavid period. In this article, we describe the decorative brickwork then dissolution of the decorations in the Safavid caravanserai in the central plateau, such as "Sheikh Ali", "Madarshah", "Moorchekhort" in "Isfahan" "Kenargard" in Tehran, caravanserai of "Ahovan" in "Semnan", caravanserai of "Sadrabad" in "Qom" and the caravanserai of "Shah Abbas" in Karaj will be discussed. This research is descriptive-analytic. Research tools is athletics and library. Finally, by examining the structures and the tables of compa...

Science Arena Publications Specialty Journal of Architecture and Construction Survey Safavid Brick Work Caravanserai Decorations in The Central Plateau of Iran

The social and cultural memories existing in the Naga oral histories relating to megalithic culture elucidates important information on the ideology of erecting megalithic monuments, social organization, rituals and their economic usages. The well-defined cultural values of erecting megalithic monuments also appear to have a relationship with craft specialization to the point of perpetuating the memory of a person who has gained a higher status. This paper discusses briefly the Feast of Merit that coincides with the stone dragging ceremony and the status men earn in terms of representations adorning their houses in the Chozuba and Runguzu villages of the Chakhesang tribe.

Ideology and Symbolism of Traditional Architecture

Mean Thammapron

Most of the beliefs are inherent within the institution in the real world. Most people choose to believe mainly to make their life happier, better, or blessed, expecting that divine and holy power-or even 'luck'-can improve their lives. In this term, an institution is a place that hosts these beliefs and morals, where people can come and share the same interests. The

Thammapron Iam-eak Mean INDA: International Program in Design and Architecture Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University 2541321 Eastern + Western Philosophy and Paradigms in Architectural Design Assignment: Final Research Paper

Rinus Ormeling

2017, EGYPT AT ITS ORIGINS 5 Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference “Origin of the State, Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Cairo, 13th – 18th April 2014

In recent years several studies have been aimed at the process of building in Early Dynastic Egypt. These studies have provided insight into construction skills, the actual chain of production of mud brick structures and the organisation of labour involved. By modelling the process of building, precise information can now be generated on labour and material requirements of structures, with details for each consecutive step in the building process. This case study analyses the developments in the construction of the large mastabas of the First Dynasty at Saqqara, with a focus on planning from construction to the moment of interment. The large mud brick tombs of the First Dynasty were built on a pristine location on the escarpment overlooking the new capital Memphis. Building on this location introduced some disadvantages: visibility asked for a larger structure, distance affected transport. We may conclude that besides the raised costs, more time for construction was needed. With hindsight, we may tentatively surmise that location and prominent visibility apparently outweighed the drawbacks. The professional builders had to find a solution for these consequences. A careful analysis of the construction of early tombs shows that the builders were able to come up with solutions to control construction time. However, as shown in the design of subsequent tombs, demands also developed over time. We may speculate that the question for a completed tomb 'by life' was one of the possible drivers behind the developments in the construction of large tombs. Then, during the reign of Den a practical solution was found, through the construction of a stairway entrance, which provided access to the subterranean burial chamber while the tomb was (probably completely) finished. However, the earlier mastabas already show signs of a phased construction, probably to enable construction of larger parts of the tombs prior to interment. " We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us " [Winston Churchill]

Planning the Construction of First Dynasty Mastabas at Saqqara. Modelling the development of the Pre-Stairway Mastabas

Elizabeth Lambourn

Brick, timber and stone: building materials and the construction of Islamic architectural history in Gujarat

Ar. Tania Bera

Glimpses of Indian Traditional Architecture Ar

Ayşegül Yurtyapan Salimi , Nuran Kara Pilehvarian , Amineddin امین الدین Salimi سلیمی

Art has been included customary and possible dimensions to speak by man with holiness, before when was related to the veil of human's egotism. In this age, since the dimension was not sourced from right and truth for man and good names of providence did not come to seek the veil of idolatrous, symbols and motifs appear the occult meanings and themselves are showy of theological facts. The art can appear as religion, because from our sight of principle of knowledgeable, art and religion are intertwined naturally. Every ingenious demonstrate the mysteries that don't appear except with brightness of intellectuality, and it is for having a share of the divine realm, which is the agency cause of manifesting artistic works. The ingenious should attract to the truth to create the making clear beautiful faces by assisting God diffusion. Ingenious lives in the shadow of the verbal knowledge tree. In this sense, if we look closely, we can find very similarities between religious and artistic knowledge: knowledge of art is as immediate and direct as religious knowledge. In the knowledge of art, the reason was not discussed as well acquired knowledge. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the religious influence on architecture, especially on the architecture of religious buildings such as churches and mosques. CAMI VE KILISELERIN MIMARISINE ROLÜ VE DIN ETKISI ÖZ Sanat insanın bencilliğin peçe ile ilişkili iken önce, kutsallık ile adam tarafından konuşmak için alışılmış ve olası boyutları dahil edilmiştir. Bu çağda, boyut insan ve ihtiyat iyi isimler için sağ ve gerçeği kaynaklı değildi çünkü putperest peçe aramaya gelmedi, semboller ve motifler gizli anlamları ortaya çıkar ve kendilerini teolojik gerçekler gösterişli bulunmaktadır. bilgili, sanat ve din ilkesi bizim gözden doğal iç içe, çünkü sanat, din olarak görünebilir. Her marifetli zihinsellik parlaklığında dışında görünmüyor sırlarını göstermek ve sanatsal eserlerini tezahür ajansı nedenidir ilahi aleme, bir paya sahip içindir. ustaca Tanrı difüzyon yardımcı olarak yapma açık, güzel yüzler oluşturmak için gerçeğe çekmek gerekir. sözlü bilgi ağacının gölgesinde Dahice yaşıyor. yakından bakarsanız bu anlamda, dini ve sanatsal bilgi arasındaki çok benzerlikler bulabilirsiniz: sanat bilgisi dini bilgi gibi acil ve doğrudan. sanat bilgisi olarak nedeni de elde edilen bilgiyi ele değildi. Bu nedenle, bu çalışmada, özellikle kilise ve cami gibi dini yapıların mimarisine, mimarlık dini etkileri araştırıldı. INTRODUCTION Since the beginning of human history, art has always been synonymous with religious subjects and expressions and concepts, which gradually predominance of mundane concepts on the human life, the fields were proportionally branched from it. In fact, just as blasphemy and polytheism prevail over


Dr. Ujjwala Palsuley

Architectural history demonstrates that there has been an inspiration for the architectural marvels in the civilizations like Greek, Roman and Egyptian etc. However, these ‘Inspirations’ in Architecture were not limited to the superficial characteristics but includes much larger arena of factors like the philosophy, theory, concept, spiritual understanding and also the ways in which knowledge is manifested in the architectural forms. India and South-East Asia has always been a topic of discussion for its resemblance in architectural characteristics. The paper focuses on how; historically; the architecture of South East Asia and India has been developed and the influential factors from both these regions which formed a rich architectural history of this region. To elaborate on this, the case of Khmer architecture with the example of Angkor Wat temple, Cambodia, which is the largest religious structure in the world and Dravidian temple architecture with an example of Brihadeeshwara te...

Analyzing the Development of Khmer Temple Architecture and Dravidian Temple Architecture from 8th To 12th AD: A Case Study

Nutaya Pimolsaengsuriya

When thinking of bridges we think of the architectural structures and its ability to connect; connecting one place to another and connecting the communities together. But what if the bridge can do more than it’s function of bridging physical obstacles or being a mere corridor or passageway? Throughout history we have overlooked the importance of bridges. We see it as a mono-functional program of urbanization but not as a possible multifunctional structure that is able to do more than just to bridge. The paper focuses on two aspects, the first being to understand bridges, specifically the habitable bridges. Its background and how it came to be, examining the past and the present projects, understanding its functions, and its future possibilities. The second aspect is to decide whether these new ideologies of habitable bridges a revival of the past or is it a new ideology of the present. Many architects of the present attempt to rethink the civicness of bridges, and perhaps look at it as a new symbolism of 21st century bridge designs. However, this challenges the architects to adapt to its environment and experiment new possible functions which could lead to an unpredictable outcome of designs.

Nutaya Pimolsaengsuriya  INDA: International Program in Design and Architecture Faculty of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University 2541321 Eastern + Western Philosophy and Paradigms in Architectural Design Assignment: Final Research Paper

2023, Indo Nordic Authors’ Collective /////////////Indo Nordic Gem Research Institute



International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology IJSRSET

2019, International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

The culture and architecture are two interlinked concepts that help man to evoke uniqueness as an individual and a social being. A person’s or a community’s identity in a particular setting can be expressed through architecture. It is promising to create spaces with differences in spatial organization, street pattern, landscaping features, etc., according to the lifestyles, beliefs, rituals and customs of the inhabitants which finally becomes the identity of that particular place. But what happens to the identity of a place when all the inhabitants are migrants who left their homeland for better education or job opportunities and settled in a location where all social -cultural aspects are poles apart from theirs? This paper explores how the Architecture evokes the identity of the migrant communities in Kalpathy, Palakkad district, Kerala, without affecting the indigenous style of the location and the character of the total setting. This synthesis and metamorphosis of various religions and traditional practices has also been phenomenal in shaping our cities. Over the ages, many of these communities have been successful in maintaining uniformity in their social and Architectural fabric. This paper is intended towards highlighting the above mentioned aspects and how a unique culture gave rise to a new form of settlements known as Agraharams. Today, Agraharams are an epitome of how migrations driven by religious reasons, can shape the society as well as the built fabric of any city.

Transformation of Built form Characteristics in Agraharams

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