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10th Class Social Science Development of Art
Question_answer 10) study table 1.5 carefully and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs. for this, you may need to make calculations based on the table. category male female literature rate for rural population 52% 19% literature rate for children in age group 10-14 years 68% 39% percentage of rural children aged 10-14 attending school 64% 31% (a) the literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old, is _______for rural males and _______for rural females. however, it is not just that these many adults could not attend schools but that there are _____who are currently not in school. (b) it is clear from the table that_________ % of rural girls and_______ % of rural boys are not attending schools. therefore, illiteracy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as_____ % for rural females and _______% for rural males. (c) this high level of illiteracy among ________age group, even after more than 60 years of our independence, is most disturbing. in many other states also we are nowhere near realization of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, which was expected to be achieved by 1960. .
(a) 52 %, 19 %, 36 % males and 69 % females. (b) 69 %, 36 %, 61 %, 32 %. (c) 10-14.
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Study the table carefully and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs. For this, you may need to make calculations based on the table. Educational Achievement of Rural Population of Uttar Pradesh The literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old, is for rural males and for rural females. However, it is not just that these many adults could not attend schools but that there are who are currently not in school.
76%,54 %, 15 % males and 18 % females, recommended questions, similar questions.
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Study Table 1.5 carefully and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs . For this , you may need to make calculations based on the table .
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UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development
UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions.
UP Board Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development InText Questions and Answers
Let’s Work these out (Page 4)
Let’s Work these out (Page 6)
Question 1. Why do different persons have different notions of development ? Which of the following explanations is more important and why ? (a) Because people are different. (b) Because life situations of persons are different. Answer: (b) Because life situations of persons are different. This is because, people seek things that are most important for them, i.e., the thing that can fulfil their aspirations or desires.
Question 2. Do the following two statements mean the same ? Justify your answer: (a) People have different developmental goals. (b) People have conflicting developmental goals. Answer: No, the above two statements do not have the same meaning. This can be justified by the following example : A boy from a rich urban family desires to get quality education and capital to invest. On the other hand, an activist from Narmada valley wants rehabilitation and regular work. These developmental goals are different but not conflicting.
Question 3. Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives. Or “Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you need to live well.” Explain giving suitable examples. [Annual Paper (Outside Delhi), 2010, Set 1,2, 3] Answer: (1) In the case of rural woman, gender equality is more important than income. (2) For scheduled castes and tribes social equality, self¬confidence and self-esteem are more important factors than income. (3) In the case of child labour proper education and freedom are more important factors than income. (4) Job security is more important than more income for casual labourers.
Question 4. Explain some of the important ideas of the above section in your own words ? Answer: (1) People want more income through regular work, better wages, higher prices for their products. (2) Besides income, people have other developmental goals also such as equal treatment in the society, freedom, security, proper education, shelter, healthcare and self-esteem. (3) For development, people seek a mix of goals. (4) If women engage in paid job, their dignity in the household and society increases. (5) A safe environment encourages women to take up variety of jobs or run a business.
Let’s Work these out (Page 7)
Discuss the following situations :
Question 2. Read this newspaper report and answer the questions that follow: Answer: A vessel dumped 500 tonnes of liquid toxic wastes into open- air dumps in a city and in the surrounding sea. This happened in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa. The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes, fainting, diarrhoea, etc. After a month seven persons were dead, twenty in hospital and twenty six thousand treated for symptoms of poisoning. A multinational company dealing in petroleum and metals contracted a local company of the Ivory Coast to dispose the toxic waste from its ship.
(i) Who are the people who benefited and who did not ? (ii) What should be the developmental goal for this country ? Answer: (i) The local company owner and the multinational company benefited while a large number of innocent local people suffered from this act. (ii) The developmental goals for this country should be proper disposal of industrial wastes and better healthcare for the general people.
Question 3. What can be some of the developmental goals for your village, town or locality ? Answer: (1) Employment opportunities should be created. (2) Local school should be able to provide quality education for the children. (3) Pucca houses should be built for the poor households. (4) Primary health centres and hospitals should be opened. (5) There should be no existence of caste system and child labour. (6) There should be no gender inequality within the family.
In-Text Question (Page 9)
Let’s Work these out (Page 9)
Question 1. Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations. Answer: (1) To compare the performance of cricket players, average is found out by dividing total runs scored by number of matches played excluding not outs. (2) We find out average daily income to compare income of casual labourers. (3) Average is used for comparing performance of students in an examination. The sum of marks obtained in each subject by a student is divided by the sum of the maximum marks in each subject and then multiplied with 100.
Question 2. Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development ? Explain. Answer: Countries have different populations, total income does not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. This is known by average income. So, average income, i.e., per capita income is an important criterion for development.
Question 3. Besides size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies ? Answer: Per capita income is useful for comparison. But it does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. So, apart from size of per capita income, equitable distribution of income is important in comparing two or more societies.
Question 4. Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better ? Illustrate your answer with an example. Answer: No, the increase in the average income of a country over a period does not mean that all sections of the economy have become better. Let us take an example from India. Average income of India has continuously been increasing since independence except for some particular years, but share of agriculture in total income of the economy has been decreasing. Even today, the condition of Indian farmers is pitiable.
Question 5. From the text, find out the per capita income level of low-income countries as per world Development Reports. Answer: The per capita income level of low income countries was US $ 955 in 2017.
Question 6. Write a paragraph on your nation of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country. Answer: To become a developed country, (1) India should accelerate its GDP growth. Special emphasis should be given on agriculture and small scale industries. (2) There is urgent need to increase growth rate of agriculture sector by providing agricultural inputs, training, credit and marketing facilities to its farmers. (3) We should develop our infrastructure, entrepreneurship, labour-intensive techniques, training, credit and marketing facilities and reduce corruption and red-tapism in government offices. Especially small scale industries should be encouraged.
Let’s Work these out (Page 12)
Question 2. Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision. Answer: There are a number of examples in life where collective provision of goods and services is better and cheaper than individual provision. (1) Hospital – Collective or public hospital will certainly be cheaper and better in comparison to the cost in availling medical facilities or a doctor at home. Also, it is not possible for every family to afford private medial facilities. (2) Electricity – Collective electricity, i.e., electricity from State Electricity Boards or BSES in Delhi is cheaper than that of running generator in the house.
Question 3. Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities ? What other factors could be relevant ? Answer: 1. No. Though the availability of good health and educational facilities depend heavily on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities but not only on these factors. 2. The other relevant factors are : (i) Government’s devotion towards these facilities (ii) Private participation in these areas ; and (iii) Public awareness about health and education.
Question 4. In Tamil Nadu, 90% of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop, whereas in West Bengal only 35% of rural people do so. Where would people be better off and why ? Answer: The people of Tamil Nadu would be better off. This is because, here 90% of the rural people use ration shops. These people can get foodgrains, sugar, kerosene oil, etc. from ration shops at a price lower than the market price.
Activity 1 (Page 7)
Activity 2 (Page 12)
(b) It is clear from the table that 18% of rural girls and 15% of rural boys are not attending school. Therefore, illiteracy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as 13% for rural females and 10% for rural males.
(c) This high level of illiteracy among 16-14 age group, even after more them 68 years of our independence, is most disturbing. In many other states also we are nowhere near realisation of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, which was expected to be achieved by 1960.
UP Board Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development Textbook Questions and Answers
Question 1. Development of a country can generally be determined by (i) its per capita income (ii) its average literacy level (iii) health status of its people (iv) all the above. Answer: (iv) all the above. (Note : Though per capita income is the most common method for measuring development. However, over the past decade, or so, education and health indicators have come to be widely used along with income as a measure of development.)
Question 2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India ? (i) Bangladesh (ii) Sri Lanka (iii) Nepal (iv) Pakistan Answer: (ii) Sri Lanka.
Question 4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries ? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any ? Answer: (1) (i) The average income, i.e., per capita income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries. (ii) According to World Development Report 2017, published by the World Bank, countries with per capita income of US $12,056 per annum and above in 2017 are called rich countries. On the other hand, countries with per capita income of US $955 e less are called low-income countries. (2) Limitation : Per capita income does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. In other words, it hides disparities.
Question 5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank ? Answer: The World Bank uses income as the criterion for measuring development while the UNDP uses health and education indicators also with income as a measure of development.
Question 6. Why do we use averages ? Are there any limitations to their use ? Illustrate with your own examples related to development. Answer: (1) Average is a single value which summarises the characteristics of mass of data. Since countries have different populations, total income does not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. This is known by average income. That is why, we use averages or average income for measuring development. (2) Yes, there are following limitations to their use : (i) An average is influenced by extreme values. (ii) An average may not give an idea about the formation of the series. Hence, average income does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. For example, (i) Only 54% of rural female in Uttar Pradesh are literate while the national average of literacy rate of India was 74%% for 2011. (ii) Per capita income of Bihar for 2015-16 was Rs. 34,409 while that of India for the same year was Rs. 77,826. Thus, averages hide disparities.
Question 7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree ? Discuss. Answer: No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all. Income is considered one of the most important criteria. This is because, more income means more of all things that human beings need. The World Bank also uses per capita income as the criterion for measuring development, i.e., comparing states. But this criterion has certain limitations. We can draw the following conclusions from the above fact : (1) The relationship between human development ranking and the per capita income does not show any correspondence. (2) Money cannot buy all the goods and services that we may need to live well. For example, money cannot buy a pollution free environment. (3) Income by itself is not an adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.
Question 8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now ? Answer: The present sources of energy used by people in India are: 1. (i) Conventional sources : Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas, Electricity (ii) Non-conventional sources : Solar energy, Wind energy, Biogas, Geothermal energy, Tidal energy, Wave energy.
2. The possibility is that India would have depended on electricity and non-conventional sources of energy. This is because, the world stock of crude oil would last only 50.2 years more if people continue to extract it at the present rate.
Question 9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development ? Answer: Sustainability for development or sustainable development refers to the development win 2004 hich should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present. It should also not compromise on the needs of the future generation.
Thus, the issue of sustainability is important for ‘ development because:
1. Rapid economic growth and industrialisation have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources. But the stock of these resources like crude oil, are limited. The growth of all countries in future is likely to be endangered if the limited resources are completely exhausted. 2. Though crude oil and minerals are essential for economic development, their use damages the environment and ecology. They cause pollution and disturb the balance in nature.
Question 10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the 1 need of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development ? Discuss. Answer: This statement is relevant to the discussion of development in the following ways : (1) Our earth has enough non-renewable resources to meet our present and future needs for development if we use them in an economic manner. We should not have greed because rapid economic development is turning our world into a vast wasteland. (2) In developed countries, the major cause of worry is supposed to be a wasteful consumption style of resources. In developing countries, the cause of such worry is said to be large and increasing population. (3) To industrialise rapidly, underdeveloped countries use fossil fuel, minerals and timber as sources of industrial energy. They are depleting these natural resources and degrading natural ecosystems. (4) Intensive farming and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides has led to over-exploitation of land and water resources. (5) The present production technology pollutes atmosphere and water bodies with garbage, litter, smoke and other poisonous gases.
Question 11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you. Answer: (1) Land degradation : There is serious problem of land degradation and soil erosion. Nearly 53% of the total land area in India is suffering from serious degradation. (2) Decline in groundwater : Groundwater is under serious threat of overuse in many parts of the country. (3) Deforestation : India’s forests have been viciously attacked and destroyed especially since independence. The forest cover in India is still below the recommed level of 33%. (4) Air pollution : Industrialisation and urbanisation has led to air pollution. Some chemical gases are poisonous while other gases damage the ozone layer of the atmosphere. (5) Water pollution: Water pollution is a result of discharge of untreated water from industry, domestic sewage and fertilizers or pesticides run-off from agricultural fields. (6) Mining : Mining activities is digrading environment by destroying land, water, forest and air.
Question 12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom. Answer: Based on to Table 1.6, we can draw following conclusions : (1) In terms of per capita income, Sri Lanka with US $11,326 is at the top while Bangladesh with US $3,677 is at the bottom. (2) In life expectancy at birth again Sri Lanka with 75.5 years is at the top whereas Bangladesh with 72.8 years is at the bottom. (3) On the basis of literacy rate for 15 + years population, Sri Lanka with 91 is at the top while Bangladesh is at the bottom. (4) In Gross Enrolment Ratio for three levels, Sri Lanka is again at the top while Pakistan is at the bottom. (5) In terms of HD rank in the world, Sri Lanka is at the top whereas Pakistan is at the bottom.
Question 1. Invite three different speakers to talk to you about the development of your region. Ask them all the questions that come to your mind. Discuss these ideas in groups. Each group should prepare a wall chart, giving reasons about ideas that you agree or do not agree with. Answer: Students, do it yourselves.
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Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below it. A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are sitting around a square facing the centre in such a way that four of them sit at the corners of the square while four sit in the middle of the four sides. A sits second to the right of F. F sits in the middle of the sides of the table. G who does not sit at any of the corners sits second to the right of D. Only two people sit between D and B (taken from the side). C is not an immediate neighbour of G. H sits second to the left of B. E is not an immediate neighbour of G or F. Who sits exactly between F and A?
The correct option is b c from the given information, we can arrange the person as follows: c sits between a and f..