Thermodynamics Assignment Help | Thermodynamics Homework Help
The branch of physics that deals with heat, temperature and their relation to energy and work are known as Thermodynamics. The behaviour of these quantities is completely dependent on the principles of Thermodynamics and it is irrespective of any composition on any property of this material that is in question. To submit a great assignment on this favourite subject of yours, check the Thermodynamics Assignment Help services.
Thermodynamics is widely used in the fields of Engineering and Science, especially in the industries of Mechanical, Chemical, Physical and Chemistry. A deep understanding of these subject areas plays a very important role, do submit the Thermodynamics assignment writing on a regular basis for better expertise in the subject.
Brief Overview of Thermodynamics
There are different branches that are involved in Thermodynamics studies and accordingly, students are supposed to work on multiple assignments based on Thermodynamics. Branches of thermodynamics can be classified as Classical Thermodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, Chemical Thermodynamics and Treatment of Equilibrium.
Apart from the different branches of Thermodynamics, it also has four laws and they are the Zeroth law of thermodynamics, the First law of thermodynamics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Third law of thermodynamics.
The first law of thermodynamics states that, if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. The first law of thermodynamics states that the internal energy of an isolated system is constant and energy is always conserved, it cannot be created or destroyed.
The second law of thermodynamics states the total entropy of an isolated system can only increase over time. It can remain constant in ideal cases where the system is in a steady state (equilibrium) or undergoing a reversible process.
The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero. All these laws were created by two scientists called Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson.
Equilibrium in Thermodynamics
Equilibrium is a fundamental concept in thermodynamics that plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of physical systems. In the context of thermodynamics, equilibrium refers to a state of rest in which the properties of a system remain constant over time, even after the lapse of an indefinite period. It is important to note that this definition of equilibrium pertains to macroscopic properties and does not imply that individual particles within the system are motionless.
States and Properties: In the world of thermodynamics, the concept of equilibrium holds immense significance as it provides valuable insights into how physical systems behave. At its core, equilibrium refers to a state of balance or rest where a system's properties remain constant over time, even when exposed to various external conditions. It is crucial to note that this definition of equilibrium applies to the observable, macroscopic properties of the system and does not imply that individual particles within the system are motionless.
Extensive and Intensive Properties: To better grasp the idea of equilibrium, it is essential to distinguish between extensive and intensive properties. Extensive properties, such as volume, mass, and internal energy, depend on the quantity of substance present in the system. On the other hand, intensive properties, like temperature, pressure, and density, characterize specific characteristics of the substance independent of its amount.
Interaction of Systems: When two systems come into contact, they can interact and exchange energy or undergo transformations. Equilibrium is achieved when these interactions lead to a point where the properties of both systems remain constant and unchanging, regardless of any minor disturbances.
Reproducibility of States: One crucial aspect of equilibrium is the reproducibility of states. If a system is under fixed external conditions that fully determine its state, its properties will not change with time, and it is considered to be in a state of rest. Any temporary changes in external conditions cause the system to return to its original state and properties, indicating the establishment of equilibrium.
Partial Equilibrium: Partial equilibrium is another interesting concept. It occurs when a system reaches equilibrium with respect to certain processes before achieving equilibrium with respect to others. For instance, in a system containing multiple gases, some gases may dissolve rapidly and reach equilibrium in their solubility, while other chemical reactions might still be far from equilibrium due to slower reaction rates.
Conventions and Mathematical Methods in Thermodynamics
In the realm of thermodynamics applied to chemistry, establishing precise notations and conventions is of utmost importance. These conventions may lack theoretical significance, but they play a critical role in ensuring accurate and efficient arithmetic computations. The historical development of science has led to the usage of certain terms in different contexts by various authors, which can cause potential confusion. To maintain consistency and avoid ambiguity, adhering to uniform usage of scientific terms is essential.
The Mole: A Fundamental Concept One fundamental concept in chemical calculations is the mole, which serves as a unit of quantity for the material. While grams and kilograms are commonly used units of mass, the mole provides greater convenience when dealing with chemical reactions. The mole is defined as the molecular weight of a substance in grams (M). However, the concept of the mole is not entirely free from ambiguity, particularly concerning the formula of the molecules present in the system.
Molal Properties: Differentiating Extensive and Intensive Properties In thermodynamics, it is essential to differentiate between extensive and intensive properties. Extensive properties, such as volume, depend on the amount of substance, while molal properties represent the value of an extensive property per mole of the substance. For instance, v denotes the molal volume (volume per mole), and y represents the molal value of any extensive property Y.
Chemical Symbols and Equations: Clear Communication of Reactions Chemical symbols and equations play a crucial role in representing substances and quantities. They allow for clear communication of chemical reactions, providing insights into the initial and final states of a system. However, additional specifications may be necessary to describe the particular condition of each substance, such as its solid, liquid, or gaseous form.
The Language of Mathematics: A Powerful Tool in Thermodynamics In thermodynamics, mathematics serves as a powerful language for the precise formulation of ideas. Maintaining mathematical rigor while ensuring clarity is essential. The properties of a system determine its state, and by choosing a few well-defined properties, all other properties can be fixed, particularly in systems that quickly reach equilibrium with their environment.
Geometric Representations and Perfect Differentials Geometric representations, such as V-T-P surfaces, provide insights into the relationships between properties and the V-T and V-P coefficients. Perfect differentials, represented as (dx + dy), can be integrated under specific conditions, offering valuable insights into the system's behavior.
Laws of Thermodynamics:
Thermodynamics, a fundamental branch of physics, encompasses a set of guiding principles known as the Laws of Thermodynamics. These laws lay the foundation for understanding how energy behaves and how systems tend to evolve. In this article, we will explore the First Law, Second Law, and Third Law of Thermodynamics.
First Law of Thermodynamics:
The First Law of Thermodynamics, also referred to as the Law of Energy Conservation, is a fundamental principle in physics. It states that energy cannot be created or destroyed; rather, it can only change forms. In other words, the total energy of an isolated system remains constant over time. In mathematical terms, we can express the First Law as:
ΔU = Q - W
Here, ΔU represents the change in internal energy of the system, Q is the heat added to the system, and W is the work done by the system. This equation shows that any heat added to the system contributes either to increasing its internal energy or performing work on its surroundings. Conversely, if heat is extracted from the system or work is done on the system, its internal energy decreases.
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
The Second Law of Thermodynamics introduces the concept of entropy, which is a measure of the level of disorder or randomness in a system. This law states that the total entropy of an isolated system never decreases; it either remains constant in reversible processes or increases in irreversible processes. In essence, natural processes tend to move from states of order to states of disorder.
Lord Kelvin famously stated: "No process is possible whose sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and its complete conversion into work." This statement implies that no engine operating in a cycle can be 100% efficient.
The Second Law can be expressed in different ways, including:
- Clausius's statement: Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder body to a hotter body.
- Kelvin-Planck statement: It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no other effect than the complete conversion of heat into work.
Third Law of Thermodynamics:
The Third Law of Thermodynamics, also known as the Nernst Heat Theorem, focuses on the behavior of systems as they approach absolute zero (0 Kelvin or -273.15°C). According to this law, the entropy of a pure crystalline substance in its perfectly ordered state approaches zero as the temperature reaches absolute zero. Mathematically, the Third Law is expressed as:
Lim S → 0 (as T → 0) = 0
Here, S represents the entropy of the system, and T is the temperature.
The Third Law implies that as the temperature approaches absolute zero, the crystalline lattice of a perfect crystal attains its most ordered state, and all molecular motion ceases. Although achieving absolute zero in practice is impossible, the Third Law provides crucial insights into the behavior of matter at extremely low temperatures.
Carnot’s Engine: Unlocking Maximum Efficiency in Heat Engines
During the 1820s, Sadi Carnot became fascinated with understanding the efficiency of steam engines, which are a type of heat engine utilizing temperature differences to produce work. One such example is the renowned Watt engine, consisting of a furnace heating water to generate steam with high pressure. The steam's pressure is then harnessed to move a piston before being released into the surrounding air.
Carnot's primary goal was to determine the maximum possible efficiency achievable by an idealized heat engine utilizing two heat baths at different temperatures: TH (furnace) and TC (ambient air), with TH being greater than TC. The efficiency (denoted as "η") of this engine is defined as the ratio of the work performed (W) to the heat absorbed from the hot bath (Qin). Energy conservation dictates that the remaining energy not converted into work is released as heat into the cold bath, thus Qout = Qin - W.
To uncover the maximum efficiency, Carnot proposed a four-stage process known as Carnot's cycle. The cycle commences with gas at volume V1 and temperature TH. The four stages are as follows:
- Connect the gas to the hot heat bath (TH) and perform isothermal expansion at TH, resulting in volume V2.
- Remove the heat bath and insulate the gas, allowing adiabatic expansion to temperature TC and volume V3.
- Put the gas in the cold heat bath (TC) and perform isothermal compression at TC, leading to volume V4.
- Remove the heat bath and insulate the gas, resulting in adiabatic compression back to TH and volume V1.
Calculating the efficiency involves assessing the work done in each stage. The network (W) is given by W = Wout1 + Wout2 - Win3 - Win4 = NkBT1 ln(V2/V1), where N represents the number of particles, kB is Boltzmann's constant, and T1 is the temperature of the hot bath. The efficiency is then expressed as η = W/Qin = (T1 - TC) / T1. This expression is known as Carnot's efficiency and represents the maximum efficiency achievable for a heat engine operating between two temperatures. The stages of Carnot's cycle can also be visualized in the PV (Pressure-Volume) or ST (Entropy-Temperature) plane, where the area enclosed by the reversible cycle represents the net work done over the cycle.
Brownian Ratchet: An Intriguing Thought Experiment
The Brownian Ratchet serves as an engaging thought experiment demonstrating how the second law of thermodynamics thwarts perpetual motion machines. It was conceptualized by Marian Smoluchowski in 1912 and popularized by Richard Feynman.
The setup involves a ratchet and pawl system placed in a box filled with gas at temperature T2 and connected to a vane in another box at temperature T1 (T1 ≠ T2). The vane is symmetrical and can rotate in either direction. A small weight is attached to a string tied to the axle. The idea is to convert the thermal motion of gas molecules on the vane side into work by pushing the pawl over the ratchet, causing the axle to lift the weight. The ratchet's design ensures it can only turn in one direction, seemingly converting thermal energy into work.
However, the Brownian Ratchet comes with a caveat - thermal fluctuations can affect the pawl, similar to how they affect the vane. The probabilities of the forward and backward motion of the ratchet are governed by the Boltzmann factor (exp(-ΔE/kBT)), where ΔE represents the energy required to move the ratchet one step. If T1 = T2, the probabilities are equal, and no network is done, adhering to the second law of thermodynamics.
To achieve work, the system must include a dissipative element. The pawl, instead of bouncing indefinitely, dissipates the energy required to bend back entirely, converting it into heat that raises the temperature of the pawl, ratchet, and gas at temperature T2. As a result, the weight slowly starts to rise, and the system functions as an engine, withdrawing heat from the T1 bath, performing work, and depositing heat into the T2 bath.
The work done by the Brownian Ratchet satisfies the condition Q1/T1 = Q2/T2, precisely the same as Carnot's engine. The Brownian Ratchet serves as an exemplary demonstration that some form of dissipation is necessary to perform work, and perpetual motion machines are fundamentally impossible due to the second law of thermodynamics.
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Heat And Thermodynamics
Heat and thermodynamics assignment help | heat and thermodynamics homework help, heat and thermodynamics assignment homework help.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physical science that deals with heat and related processes. It is the study of the inter-relation between heat, work and internal energy of a system. Thermodynamics is especially relevant to power plants which focuses on the laws governing heat transfer from one location to another and transformation of energy from one form into another. Examples of such processes would be the heat transfer in a steam generator or the conversion of heat into work in a steam turbine.
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Thermodynamics Essays (Examples)
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Thermodynamics esearch Lack of access to potable water or in places where it is hard to get is a reality that many individuals encounter. Technology is capable of assisting in improving this particular situation. An example of such technology is reverse osmosis; this procedure utilizes membranes to separate salt from seawater. It applies pressure vessels that house three membranes that are frequently spirally wound. Around 35 to 50% of water (potable) can be retrieved from seawater introduced into the desalination plant. Other essential parts of the plant are usually made up of an energy recovery system, pre-treatment system, post-treatment system, and pumps. The operation of these desalination plants invite various costs because of the energy used up. There are several ways of minimizing this like: 1) combining the plant with other systems, 2) creating better membranes, 3) utilizing more efficient pumps, and 4) implementing new or enhanced energy recovery technologies. commercially….
Qureshi, B. A., & Zubair, S. M. (2016). Energy-exergy analysis of seawater reverse osmosis plants. Desalination, 385, 138-147.
Schneider, B. (n.d.). Turbines Recover 90% Energy in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Plants. Water World, 7(5). Retrieved from Water world.
Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis and the Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis is the systematic process used by plants as a means to harness solar energy. A semiconductor-based solar cell harnesses solar energy to convert it to electricity required by and used by humans. As such, the process of photosynthesis is a contributor to both plant and solar cells. There are numerous similarities and differences between plant and solar cells; however, they both ultimately work to produce energy. A plant cell is a structural and functional unit of a plant and characteristically has rigid cell walls lankenship, 2011). With the simplest form of a plant cell, it forms a single cell constituting an entire organism, carrying out all life functions. One of the most conspicuous features of the plant cell is the presence of membrane bound organelles referred to as plastids. A photovoltaic or solar cell is a device that captures energy and transforms solar radiation….
Blankenship, R. (2011). Comparing photosynthetic and photovoltaic efficiencies and recognizing the potential for improvement. Science, 332 (6031), 805-809.
Demons There are several theories in physics that apply probability theory to various problems. Examples of this can be statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. Physicist James Clerk Maxwell came up with a thought experiment in the late nineteenth century that has puzzled people for over a century. The thought experiment deals with how someone might be able to violate the second law of thermodynamics by creating a situation that might decrease entropy in the system. Entropy can be thought of as the tendency for any system to loose energy. Entropy is a function of state, like the internal energy. It measures the relative degree of order (as opposed to disorder) of the system when in this state. An understanding of the meaning of entropy thus requires some appreciation of the way systems can be described microscopically (Sethna). Maxwell had the insight to think of two systems placed side by side. He….
Callender, C. "Who's Afraid of Maxwell's Demon - and Which One?" N.d. UCDS. Online. 3 March 2014.
Sethna, J. "Statistical Mechanics." 2006. Cornell University. .
Universe Review. "Maxwell's Demon." N.d. Universe Review. Online. 3 March 2014.
History of the First and Second Laws
History Of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics Modern life would not be the same without two important laws of thermodynamics. ithout these two laws we would not have the gasoline engine or electricity in our homes. These two laws made the inventions that we take for granted possible. These two laws are the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It forms the basis of the idea that in order to produce a prescribed amount of work, a certain amount of energy must be put into a system. The second law of thermodynamics is about the active nature of systems. It states that systems will work to achieve a state of balance and equilibrium. The laws of thermodynamics came about through observation. Early scientists simply made observations about the natural world around them and then tried to….
Crowe, M.J.,(1998) Heat and Thermodynamics from Newton to the Kinetic Theory. Notre Dame, Indiana: Poverty Publishing Co. Chapters 5,6,7.
Nye, Mary Jo, (1997) Before Big Science: The Pursuit of Modern Chemistry and Physics, 1800-1940. New York: Twayne Publishers.
Science Hydrogen Fuel as an
This is frequently referred to as entropy. In the route of energy transfer, some energy will disperse as heat. Entropy is a measure of disarray. The course of energy sustains order and life. Entropy is successful when organisms stop taking in energy and die (Laws of Thermodynamics, 2010). Many experts feel that Hydrogen is the ideal fuel known to man at this time. It is a fuel source that has no chance of being depleted until the Sun stops producing it. There isn't much chance of the Sun stopping production either. The only result of hydrogen combustion is water. Because one of the ways hydrogen can be produced is by separating it from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, the process lends itself to recycling within a closed system. There are a few negatives that surround the use of Hydrogen. First, it is a very dangerous explosive. It is….
Hydrogen: The Never Ending Fuel Source. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Laws of Thermodynamics. (2010). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Social Ecology of Health Promotion Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market. Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in the society. For instance,….
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Hydrogen Is Not an Appropriate
Carbon monoxide gas [CO (g)] is a byproduct of this reaction which defeats the intent of alternative fuel sources to eliminate production of greenhouse gases. Following the first and second laws of thermodynamics, this procedure results in a severe energy loss. The first law of thermodynamics says that the energy output from any process can't exceed the energy input, and the second law focusing in part on decay states that each process decays energy. The production of the methanol from natural gas results in an initial 32% to 44% net energy loss, then the steam treatment process to procure the hydrogen results in a further 35% energy loss. Several processes are being explored to derive hydrogen from water, as an inexhaustible source. However, this reaction, 2H2O + e = 2H2(g) + O2(g), requires a substantial energy investment per unit of water (286kJ per mole). This energy investment is again required by both the….
[i, ii, iv, vi] Joseph J. Romm, the Hype About Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the race to save the Climate (Island Press, NW. Washington DC 2004).
Joseph J. Romm, Andrew a. Frank "Hybrid Vehicles Gain Traction" Scientific American (April 2006).
Business Wire "?
Hydrogen Fuel as an Alternative
Instead, loss of the fuel results in entropy, a concern of the second law of thermodynamics and this helps prove the impracticality of this fuel. Combine this with the size of the fuel tank necessary to power a car for many hundreds of miles, and hydrogen begins to look far worse as a real alternative to fuel conservation and replacing fossil fuels. Hydrogen seems like a good idea, and there are hydrogen vehicles in production and on the road. However, delivering hydrogen from the production plants to facilities also proves to be expensive, and it is expensive to build new hydrogen fuel centers, as well. Hydrogen can be dangerous, too. Liquid hydrogen can freeze air, and hydrogen can cause explosions, just like gasoline. If enough hydrogen leaks from a faulty valve or tank in a confined space, like a garage, it can explode, as well (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen….
McCarthy, John. "Hydrogen." Stanford University. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/hydrogen.html
Rocheleau, Richard E. "Hydrogen." Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/hydrogen.asp
Aquatic System & 8226 Describe Climate Affects Selected
aquatic system • Describe climate affects selected ecosystem. • Explain, based laws thermodynamics, energy flows selected ecosystem. • Examine matter transported selected ecosystem due biogeochemical cycles, carbon, hydrologic, nitrogen, phosphorus. Aquatic ecosystems Aquatic ecosystems are mainly responsible for assisting energy transfers across the planet and for making it possible for all life on earth to exist. Depending on the area where it is located and on the substances that it contains, a body of water can have more or less living beings in it. Climate has a strong impact on water and on the organisms that directly depend on it. Climate change has had a severe effect on bodies of water all around the planet and this is obvious especially when considering melting glaciers and the energy that they release. Thermohaline circulation is one of the most important circulation systems present on the planet and it is largely in charge of controlling….
Franks, Felix, "Water: A Matrix of Life," (Royal Society of Chemistry, 19.07.2000)
Juuti, Petri, "Environmental History of Water: Global Views on Community Water Supply and Sanitation," (IWA Publishing, 30.01.2007)
Nature of Heat the Nature of Heat
Nature of Heat Heat The nature of heat -- where it comes from, what it is made of, how it moves -- has been a source of fascination to philosophers and scientists since the earliest civilizations. The Ancient Greeks connected heat to their early atomic theory. Natural philosophers and chemists during the Enlightenment in Europe considered heat to be its own substance known as 'caloric.' It was not until the 19th century that physicists connected heat to the emerging theories of energy. In the 1840s, James Joule discovered that the appearance and disappearance of heat was always accompanied by the appearance and disappearance of kinetic energy (Tippler, 1999). It soon was confirmed that heat is not in fact its own substance but is a form of energy. The study of heat as a form of energy, known as thermodynamics, is closely tied to the kinetic theory of matter. The kinetic theory of matter….
Guha, E. (2000) Basic Thermodynamics. London: Alpha Science International.
Hermans-Killam, L. And Daou, D. (2011) Heat and temperature. Caltech Cosmic Classroom. Retrieved from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu / cosmic_classroom/light_lessons/thermal/index.html
Jha, D.K. (2004). Textbook of Heat. New Dehli: Discovery Publishing House.
Zobel, E.A. (2010) Heat and Temperature. Zona Land Education. Retrieved from http://zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/mechanics/energy/heatAndTemperature/heatAndTemperature.html
Heat How Does the Study of Heat
Heat How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter? First, the Kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of numerous small articles known as the atoms and molecules which are in constant motion. There are some assumptions that are made under this theory, one is that matter is made up of particles that are widely spaced and these particles are in constant motion (on Kurtus, 2011). This theory also states that these molecules have great kinetic energy and move faster when subjected to higher temperatures. The moving of the particles therefore help in transferring of the heat energy by one molecule that moves fast colliding with one that moves slowly hence transferring some of the heat energy to it and in effect starts to move faster. This is how the kinetic theory of matter and the assumption that the particles are constantly in motion is….
Jeff Haby, (2012). The Difference Between
Temperature and Heat. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://www.theweatherprediction.com/habyhints/39/
Michael Fowler, (2008). Early Attempts to Understand the Nature of Heat. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/152.mf1i.spring02/What%20is%20Heat.htm
M.J. Farabee, (2010). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookener1.html
Conservation of Energy Conserving Energy
It is not only purely mechanical transfers of energy that follow this law of the conservation of energy, but all biological organisms must abide by this universal law as well. Take, for instance, the process of photosynthesis, which is considered the primary provider energy to almost all of life on Earth. Very simply put, "photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar" (Carter 1996). The process itself is actually quite complex, but basically several different pigments in plants (most essentially chlorophyll) absorb different wavelengths of light, which excites their electrons and causes chemical reactions to take place within specific molecules in the plant. These reactions ultimately result in the recombination of atoms into sugars, whose bonds can be broken to release energy when the plant needs it. Plants are then eaten by other organisms, and te energy stored in….
Carter, J. (1996). "Photosynthesis." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/photosyn.htm
Kyrk, J. (2008). "Krebs cycle." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://www.johnkyrk.com/krebs.html
Nave, C. (2005). "Hyperphysics: Heat and thermodynamics." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe.html
Cells Are Known as the Basic Units
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity. One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls. Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting materials. The….
" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html
STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html
J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.
Entropy in Our Lives
Entropy Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S. The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003) Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of the universe remains….
Atkins, P.W., and Julio De Paula. Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2002.
Clymer, Jeffrey. Arrhenius Calculation. 2002. Nuvox.net. Available:
http://members.nuvox.net/~on.jwclymer/arr.html. July 1, 2004.
EntropyLaw. The Law of Maximum Entropy Production or Why the World Is in the Order Production Business. 2004. 2004. Available:
Science Heat How Does the
An object's heat capacity is the product of its precise heat capacity, which is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of the material one degree, and it's mass in kg. Heat capacity is a widespread property of a matter. In other words its worth varies depending on how much matter is present (Jorgensen, 2011). What are the various sources of heat? The sun is an element of the solar system. Therefore, it is a natural source of heat energy. Sunlight is significant for the survival of all living things. This type of heat energy is also known as solar energy. The heat energy that is obtained from the Earth is known as geothermal energy. Sustainable and unsoiled geothermal energy can be obtained from the hot water and rocks that are located in the shallow ground. It is also located in the molten rocks obtainable in the farthest deepness of….
Charmaine, Mike. (2010). What Are the Sources of Heat Energy? Retrieved January 27, 2011,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/list_6038161_sources-heat-energy_.html
Heat. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2011, from Web site: http://hyperphysics.phy-
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Thermodynamics Assignment Help
Thermodynamics is the specialized branch of physics that is highly concerned with the heat and temperature and their relationship with work and energy. It mainly focuses on the process of how thermal energy is converted into other forms of energy. These processes mainly result in work done and are guided by the laws of thermodynamics. Also, it is used in several fields of engineering and science to make cell biology, chemical experiments, engines, and a number of other crucial matters. However, the discipline of thermodynamics is quite a crucial area taught to all the students, but sometimes they feel quite distressed and troubled. As there are a number of concepts such as volume, temperature, and pressure, etc. that gives great anxiety to the students during their study.
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Laws of Thermodynamics by our Thermodynamics Homework Help Experts
- First Law of Thermodynamics: This law clearly deals with the entire amount of energy in the whole universe and signifies that this amount of energy cannot be changed. In simpler terms, the first law of thermodynamics states that the energy neither be created nor be destroyed and can only change or move from one entity to another. For example, a bulb converts electric energy into light energy, if a ball hits the other ball then the kinetic energy is generated, and also if an individual walking, moving, breathing then he/she is transforming chemical energy into kinetic energy.
- Second Law of Thermodynamics: This law is completely concerned with the quality of energy. It states that the entropy of an isolated system will tend to increase over time. Moreover, it is the natural tendency of any isolated system to degenerate into worse disordered condition. For example, after cleaning a room, it has a natural tendency to be messy again and it is the result of the second law. For more information on the second law of thermodynamics, just connect with our thermodynamics assignment help services.
- Third Law of Thermodynamics: It deals with restricting the behavior of the system when the temperature reaches complete zero. Generally, the third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a crystal is absolute zero when the temperature of the crystal is equal to zero. The value of entropy is mainly 0, but in some of the cases, there is a very less amount of residual entropy left in the system.
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Thermodynamics is a study that helps in determining the relationship between heat, energy, and other macroscopic variables. However, it seems to be quite easy but for some students, it is a real struggle. Assignments related to thermodynamics require much writing in addition to mathematical equations and thus it needs more time and research too. This thing puzzles the student's mind to a great extent and thus they are unable to deliver the best thermodynamics assignment. They also face difficulties in understanding the laws of thermodynamics and its implications and this results in their bad grades in academics. Moreover, they limit their research only to the textbooks and notes without getting awareness of the practical knowledge of the discipline. This clearly results in an improper understanding of the discipline. Sometimes, students run into unexpected situations that restrict them from having the required time to finish a top-quality thermodynamics assignment and project. Some thermodynamics topics such as entropy equation thermodynamics, statistical predictions, thermodynamic potential, and other theories and applications related to thermodynamics problems are the biggest hurdles in their academic life. Don’t worry our experts are familiar with all the thermodynamics examples and complex details of the discipline and provide the top-notch thermodynamics homework help according to the specifications of the student’s university tutor. Just connect with EssayCorp and feel proud to show to the tutors the thermodynamics assignment done by our panel of professionals.
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Here are the lists of some important concepts covered by our thermodynamics homework help experts.
- Statistical Thermodynamics: The term thermodynamics describes the behavior of the system and contains a huge amount of particles. Statistical thermodynamics is the branch that deals in utilizing the statistics to relate the microscopic elements of a system. It is based on the fundamentals that the entire system configuration must satisfy the conditions such as a number of particles, volume, temperature, etc. This makes the whole system in the statistically most possible configuration. It is the most crucial part of thermodynamics in which most of the students face difficulty while learning it. If they encounter such a problem then they can seek our thermodynamics assignment help services.
- Classical Thermodynamics: It is concerned with the macroscopic elements of a system such as pressure, temperature, and volume. It is mainly used to demonstrate the exchange of energy, heat, and work based on the laws of thermodynamics. It is also used to describe the changes in a system in terms of macroscopic measurable parameters.
- Chemical Thermodynamics: It is the study of how work and heat relate to each other in chemical reaction and change of state. It has a set of rules and laws that explain the process of heat and work coordinate with one another. The chemical thermodynamics is also concerned with enthalpy, internal energy, entropy, and free energy.
- Thermochemistry: It is the specific branch of thermodynamics that deals with the study of heat absorbed or released due to the chemical reactions.
- Thermodynamic Equilibrium: It usually deals with the condition of a thermodynamic system in which the properties do not change, but can be changed only by the effects on other systems. The entropy is greater than any other state for a thermodynamic equilibrium system with a given energy. Avail our thermodynamics assignment help services and feel the difference in your academic grades.
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D shows the manometer at different times. At which time is the gas pressure inside the tank is verylow suction pressure. Explain?
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3. Pressure and temperature are both intensive properties of a system.
Consider an engine with a gas power cycle that can be modeled using the ideal Otto cycle. Just before compression, the gas has a pressure of P = 93 kPa, a temperature of T = 25°C, and a volume of V =0.005 m³. During the cycle, the engine obtains a maximum temperature of T = 1123 °C. Determine the heat rejection during each cycle, and determine the net-work produced during each cycle. Use cold air
4-29 A piston-cylinder device contains 0.85 kg of refrigerant-134a at -10°C. The piston that is free to move has a mass of12 kg and a diameter of 25 cm. The local atmospheric pres-sure is 88 kPa. Now, heat is transferred to refrigerant-134auntil the temperature is 15°C. Determine (a) the final pres-sure, (b) the change in the volume of the cylinder, and (c) the change in the enthalpy of the refrigerant-134a.
3. (1-50) A pressure gauge connected to a tank reads 500 kPa at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 94 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank.
Find the enthalpy of water at 245 C and x = 0.87
The molar specific volume of a system V is defined as the ratio of the volume (V) of the system to the number (N) of moles of substance contained in the system. Is this an extensive or intensive property? (10 pts)
An inventor claims to have developed a resistance heat that supplies 1.2 kWh of energy to a room for each kWh of electricity it consumes. This is a reasonable claim. O TrueO False
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Browse Course Material
Course info, instructors.
- Prof. Bernhardt Trout
- Prof. Jefferson W. Tester
- Chemical Engineering
As Taught In
- Analytical Chemistry
Learning Resource Types
Chemical engineering thermodynamics, assignments.
Unless otherwise noted, problems assigned by number refer to corresponding problems in the course text: Tester, J. W., and Modell, Michael. Thermodynamics and Its Applications . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1996. ISBN: 9780139153563.
Session numbers indicate due dates for problem sets.
Chemistry Assignment Help With Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics, 7.1 basic fundamental system.
Any specified portion of universe under investigation is called system.
Surroundings Outside the system is called surroundings. System + Surroundings = Universe
7.1.1 Thermodynamic Process
It is an operation by which a system undergoes a change from one state to another. (i) Isothermal Process: A process in which the temperature remains constant throughout its course is called isothermal process. i.e. DT = 0 (ii) Adiabatic Process: A process during which no heat is exchanged between the system and the surroundings is called adiabatic process. i.e. dq = 0 (iii) Isobaric Process: A process in which pressure of the system remains constant is called isobaric process. i.e. DP = 0 (iv) Isochoric Process: A process in which volume of the system remains constant is called isochoric process. i.e. DV = 0 (v) Cyclic Process: A process during which state of the system does not change is called cyclic process. (vi) Reversible Process: A process in which the driving force is infinite similarly greater than the opposing force is called reversible. (vii) Irreversible Process: A process in which direction can not be altered by small changes in variables like P, V, T etc. is called irreversible process.
7.1.2 Extensive and Intensive Properties
(i) Properties which depend upon mass are called extensive properties e.g., mass, volume, energy etc. (ii) Properties which do not depend on the amount of matter are called intensive properties, e.g. pressure, temperature, density.
7.1.3 State Functions
The fundamental property which is independent of path is called state function.
Work is defined as energy transferred to or from a system with reference to the surrounding. If an object is displaced through a distance dx against a force F, then the amount of work is defined as w = F × dx.
Types of Work: (i) Gravitational work = mgh m = mass of body g = acceleration due to gravity h = height (ii) Electrical work = Charge × Potential = q × V (iii) Mechanical work = Pext (V2 – V1) = Pext. DV Work done on the system, w = + ve Work done by the system, w = – ve
The energy that flows across the boundary of a system during state of difference in temperature between system and surroundings and flows from higher to lower temperature is called heat. Heat absorbed or evolved, DQ = msDt m = mass s = sp. heat Dt = temp. Difference
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- Second Law of Thermodynamics
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