- GENERAL LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
- Being cautious
- Being critical
- Classifying and listing
- Compare and contrast
- Defining terms
- Describing trends
- Describing quantities
- Explaining causality
- Giving examples
- Signalling transition
- Writing about the past
The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. It aims to provide you with examples of some of the phraseological ‘nuts and bolts’ of writing organised according to the main sections of a research paper or dissertation (see the top menu ). Other phrases are listed under the more general communicative functions of academic writing (see the menu on the left). The resource should be particularly useful for writers who need to report their research work. The phrases, and the headings under which they are listed, can be used simply to assist you in thinking about the content and organisation of your own writing, or the phrases can be incorporated into your writing where this is appropriate. In most cases, a certain amount of creativity and adaptation will be necessary when a phrase is used. The items in the Academic Phrasebank are mostly content neutral and generic in nature; in using them, therefore, you are not stealing other people’s ideas and this does not constitute plagiarism. For some of the entries, specific content words have been included for illustrative purposes, and these should be substituted when the phrases are used. The resource was designed primarily for academic and scientific writers who are non-native speakers of English. However, native speaker writers may still find much of the material helpful. In fact, recent data suggest that the majority of users are native speakers of English. More about Academic Phrasebank .
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Transitional Words and Phrases
One of your primary goals as a writer is to present ideas in a clear and understandable way. To help readers move through your complex ideas, you want to be intentional about how you structure your paper as a whole as well as how you form the individual paragraphs that comprise it. In order to think through the challenges of presenting your ideas articulately, logically, and in ways that seem natural to your readers, check out some of these resources: Developing a Thesis Statement , Paragraphing , and Developing Strategic Transitions: Writing that Establishes Relationships and Connections Between Ideas.
While clear writing is mostly achieved through the deliberate sequencing of your ideas across your entire paper, you can guide readers through the connections you’re making by using transitional words in individual sentences. Transitional words and phrases can create powerful links between your ideas and can help your reader understand your paper’s logic.
In what follows, we’ve included a list of frequently used transitional words and phrases that can help you establish how your various ideas relate to each other. We’ve divided these words and phrases into categories based on the common kinds of relationships writers establish between ideas.
Two recommendations: Use these transitions strategically by making sure that the word or phrase you’re choosing matches the logic of the relationship you’re emphasizing or the connection you’re making. All of these words and phrases have different meanings, nuances, and connotations, so before using a particular transitional word in your paper, be sure you understand its meaning and usage completely, and be sure that it’s the right match for your paper’s logic. Use these transitional words and phrases sparingly because if you use too many of them, your readers might feel like you are overexplaining connections that are already clear.
Categories of Transition Words and Phrases
Causation Chronology Combinations Contrast Example
Importance Location Similarity Clarification Concession
Conclusion Intensification Purpose Summary
Transitions to help establish some of the most common kinds of relationships
Causation– Connecting instigator(s) to consequence(s).
accordingly as a result and so because
consequently for that reason hence on account of
since therefore thus
Chronology– Connecting what issues in regard to when they occur.
after afterwards always at length during earlier following immediately in the meantime
later never next now once simultaneously so far sometimes
soon subsequently then this time until now when whenever while
Combinations Lists– Connecting numerous events. Part/Whole– Connecting numerous elements that make up something bigger.
additionally again also and, or, not as a result besides even more
finally first, firstly further furthermore in addition in the first place in the second place
last, lastly moreover next second, secondly, etc. too
Contrast– Connecting two things by focusing on their differences.
after all although and yet at the same time but
despite however in contrast nevertheless nonetheless notwithstanding
on the contrary on the other hand otherwise though yet
Example– Connecting a general idea to a particular instance of this idea.
as an illustration e.g., (from a Latin abbreviation for “for example”)
for example for instance specifically that is
to demonstrate to illustrate
Importance– Connecting what is critical to what is more inconsequential.
foundationally most importantly
of less importance primarily
Location– Connecting elements according to where they are placed in relationship to each other.
above adjacent to below beyond
centrally here nearby neighboring on
opposite to peripherally there wherever
Similarity– Connecting to things by suggesting that they are in some way alike.
by the same token in like manner
in similar fashion here in the same way
Other kinds of transitional words and phrases Clarification
i.e., (from a Latin abbreviation for “that is”) in other words
that is that is to say to clarify to explain
to put it another way to rephrase it
granted it is true
naturally of course
in conclusion in the end
in fact indeed no
of course surely to repeat
undoubtedly without doubt yes
for this purpose in order that
so that to that end
to this end
in brief in sum
in summary in short
to sum up to summarize
Improving Your Writing Style
This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels.
Clear, Concise Sentences
Use the active voice
Put the action in the verb
Tidy up wordy phrases
Reduce wordy verbs
Reduce prepositional phrases
Reduce expletive constructions
Avoid using vague nouns
Avoid unneccessarily inflated words
Avoid noun strings
Connecting Ideas Through Transitions
Using Transitional Words and Phrases
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Effective Transition Words for Research Papers
What are transition words in academic writing?
A transition is a change from one idea to another idea in writing or speaking and can be achieved using transition terms or phrases. These transitions are usually placed at the beginning of sentences, independent clauses, and paragraphs and thus establish a specific relationship between ideas or groups of ideas. Transitions are used to enhance cohesion in your paper and make its logical development clearer to readers.
Types of Transition Words
Transitions accomplish many different objectives. We can divide all transitions into four basic categories:
- Additive transitions signal to the reader that you are adding or referencing information
- Adversative transitions indicate conflict or disagreement between pieces of information
- Causal transitions point to consequences and show cause-and-effect relationships
- Sequential transitions clarify the order and sequence of information and the overall structure of the paper
These terms signal that new information is being added (between both sentences and paragraphs), introduce or highlight information, refer to something that was just mentioned, add a similar situation, or identify certain information as important.
These terms and phrases distinguish facts, arguments, and other information, whether by contrasting and showing differences; by conceding points or making counterarguments; by dismissing the importance of a fact or argument; or replacing and suggesting alternatives.
These terms and phrases signal the reasons, conditions, purposes, circumstances, and cause-and-effect relationships. These transitions often come after an important point in the research paper has been established or to explore hypothetical relationships or circumstances.
These transition terms and phrases organize your paper by numerical sequence; by showing continuation in thought or action; by referring to previously-mentioned information; by indicating digressions; and, finally, by concluding and summing up your paper. Sequential transitions are essential to creating structure and helping the reader understand the logical development through your paper’s methods, results, and analysis.
How to Choose Transitions in Academic Writing
Transitions are commonplace elements in writing, but they are also powerful tools that can be abused or misapplied if one isn’t careful. Here are some ways to ensure you are using transitions effectively.
- Check for overused, awkward, or absent transitions during the paper editing process. Don’t spend too much time trying to find the “perfect” transition while writing the paper.
- When you find a suitable place where a transition could connect ideas, establish relationships, and make it easier for the reader to understand your point, use the list to find a suitable transition term or phrase.
- Similarly, if you have repeated some terms again and again, find a substitute transition from the list and use that instead. This will help vary your writing and enhance the communication of ideas.
- Read the beginning of each paragraph. Did you include a transition? If not, look at the information in that paragraph and the preceding paragraph and ask yourself: “How does this information connect?” Then locate the best transition from the list.
- Check the structure of your paper—are your ideas clearly laid out in order? You should be able to locate sequence terms such as “first,” “second,” “following this,” “another,” “in addition,” “finally,” “in conclusion,” etc. These terms will help outline your paper for the reader.
For more helpful information on academic writing and the journal publication process, visit Wordvice’s Academic Resources Page. And be sure to check out Wordvice’s professional English editing services if you are looking for paper editing and proofreading after composing your academic document.
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- 100+ Strong Verbs That Will Make Your Research Writing Amazing
- How to Write an Abstract
- Which Tense to Use in Your Abstract
- Active and Passive Voice in Research Papers
- Common Phrases Used in Academic Writing
Other Resources Around the Web
- MSU Writing Center. Transition Words.
- UW-Madison Writing Center. Transition Words and Phrases.
Impressive Academic Phrases for Writing Manuscripts
If you are a graduate student or a researcher, you definitely know the challenges involved in composing academic documents. Right from the abstract to the conclusion, every section must follow a logical structure. Using appropriate language, tense, voice, and perspective to present your ideas is very important. As a good practice, researchers prior to writing a manuscript extensively read previously published literature. However, scanning for the right phrases and then using them as templates to fill in data obtained from their work can be extremely time-consuming! In the following article we present to you a “quick reference guide for impressive academic phrases”. Collated from hundreds of published manuscripts, these frequently used academic phrases are tailored to what every section of your article should achieve.
Benefits of Using Tailor-made Academic Phrases
- Using these phrases will simplify your writing process. You can invest your time and efforts for something more productive.
- These phrases will help you write in a clear and concise manner.
- Ready-made phrases can expedite your process of organizing your data in a logical manner.
- There are far less chances of plagiarism as these are generic phrases that find acceptance across all disciplines.
- Editors and peer reviewers may find it easier to run through your data when expressed using standard or conventional phrases. This may assist in speeding up the review process and increasing your chances of a faster publication.
- Think about your target audience – busy researchers and academicians! They will surely enjoy reading a manuscript that is crisp and engaging.
- Structure of a manuscript is paramount! These phrases may also help you create a logical framework for your data.
Abstract is that element of a manuscript that convinces your reader why your article is worth reading. It is like a miniature article that clearly states the objectives and briefly explains all your key findings.
XYZ is the primary/main/leading/major cause of… XYZ is /are attracting considerable interest/gaining widespread attention due to… An intriguing/important/challenging aspect of XYZ is… As far as we know/to our knowledge this is the first study/no previous research has investigated… Very few studies have investigated/have shown/examined/focused on… One approach /alternative approach to solve these problems… The aim /overall objective/ultimate goal of… This paper reports/outlines/proposes/describes/presents a novel approach.. This manuscript examines/focusses on/addresses/investigates/sheds light on how to.. The aim of this study/work/research was to broaden/widen/extend/further the current knowledge about… Here, we describe/present a simple/novel/radical/effective/interesting solution for
Introduction and literature review
This section focuses on – what did you investigate and why it is important? Consequently, you have to provide some background information and thereafter introduce the aims or arguments of the paper.
An ever-increasing body of literatures shows that.. Very recently, XYZ have provided new evidences for… Several studies have hypothesized /proposed/put forward.. In recent years, there has been growing/considerable interest in… The last few years has witnessed/ seen a huge growth in XYZ. This study constitutes a relatively new area of research which has emerged from… In order to elucidate/reveal/understand the XYZ mechanism… For several years, researchers have been focusing on XYZ in an attempt to understand… To address these three gaps in research outlined above, we formulated the following research question… Overall, this review paper puts an emphasis on… Preliminary/ initial studies on XYZ primarily focused on… An increase/decrease in factor X was first reported/noted/identified by… Several studies, for instance , , and  have suggested/highlighted/revealed/proposed/demonstrated…. XYZ et al. calculated/analyzed/estimated… ABC traced the developments/advancements /evolution of XYZ… PQR maintains/suggests/underlines/argues/suggests that… Few authors have also suggested that… Although there are several studies consistent with XYZ , no study has till date examined… Previous studies reported by [A], [B] and [C] cannot be considered conclusive as…. Studies by XYZ have led to a more profound understanding of… Only a few studies in literature demonstrate… To fill this gap in literature, this manuscript/paper identifies… To develop/establish a novel/effective alternative… Our findings might be useful/vital/crucial for developing a simple/effective/cost-effective…method for.. Despite several reviews in the literature that address the importance of XYZ none of the recently published articles have comprehensively discussed the important roles of… While XYZ is well documented in literature (,,,), to date, no research has… However, we argue that the reported literature suffers from certain limitations…
Materials and Methods
This sections provides details about the study site, organisms studies, experimental design, and computational or statistical methods used to analyze the data.
In our preliminary experiments, we determined that… This phenomenon was experimentally investigated by… The principle focus of this experiment was to calculate… The XYZ strain used in this study was kindly supplied by… Statistical analyses were performed by using … test with a significance level of … Data analysis (regression analysis/correlation studies) and graphical representations were performed using…
Results and Discussion
This section discusses all the outcomes relevant to the research question. One needs to highlight the significance of the results and indicate whether your findings support or reject the hypothesis.
When analyzing the data, we applied XYZ technique and… The current study confirmed the findings/found clear support for the… Our results demonstrated/found evidence that… From the results it is evident/clear that… Moreover, the results of the empirical studies showed that… Additionally, researchers have found a positive/negative relationship/correlation between… These findings/results are consistent/in line/in accordance with… in addition we assessed…, the findings revealed significant differences in… On the contrary, very few studies have reported… Equally important is the fact that there is strong correlation between… The limitations of the present study include… Although widely accepted, this method suffers from certain limitations .. It is interesting to note that… Further investigation/studies are required to precisely/accurately understand/elucidate… In addition to these findings, the results of our previous studies demonstrate…
The conclusions section highlights all the important trends and comparisons identified in the study. It also states the limitations as well as future recommendations to carry out subsequent research.
XYZ has shown promising results and thus could be a powerful technique/tool/method for… These findings could provide new insights into… The significant benefits/key contributions/main achievements of this study can be summarized as.. We believe that XYZ merits further research to discover/explore… and potential for… Also this remains a subject for future studies/experiments. Although further investigations are needed, the present study contributes to a better understanding/characterization of… In this review/article we addressed the current progress and challenges in… Nevertheless, there are still critical challenges regarding.. Furthermore, XYZ is a domain where much remains to be studied… As a final remark, it is also vital to mention…
We hope these academic phrases will assist you in the logical development of your manuscript and making it impactful. Let us know your feedback in the comments section below!
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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.
Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.
This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.
Table of contents
Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.
Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:
- Read it carefully, looking for anything confusing you might need to clarify with your professor.
- Identify the assignment goal, deadline, length specifications, formatting, and submission method.
- Make a bulleted list of the key points, then go back and cross completed items off as you’re writing.
Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.
There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.
You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.
You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.
Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:
- A paper following the chronology of World War II would not be original or specific enough.
- A paper on the experience of Danish citizens living close to the German border during World War II would be specific and could be original enough.
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Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.
Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.
- Is there anything people seem to overlook in the sources you research?
- Are there any heated debates you can address?
- Do you have a unique take on your topic?
- Have there been some recent developments that build on the extant research?
In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”
A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.
The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.
You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.
A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.
A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.
Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:
- Maintaining forward momentum — write now, perfect later.
- Paying attention to clear organization and logical ordering of paragraphs and sentences, which will help when you come to the second draft.
- Expressing your ideas as clearly as possible, so you know what you were trying to say when you come back to the text.
You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.
Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.
Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.
George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.
It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.
You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.
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The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.
What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.
Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?
How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.
The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.
One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:
- topic sentences against the thesis statement;
- topic sentences against each other, for similarities and logical ordering;
- and each sentence against the topic sentence of that paragraph.
Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.
The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.
Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.
You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.
You should not :
- Offer new arguments or essential information
- Take up any more space than necessary
- Begin with stock phrases that signal you are ending the paper (e.g. “In conclusion”)
There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.
- Check how your vision of the paper lines up with the first draft and, more importantly, that your paper still answers the assignment.
- Identify any assumptions that might require (more substantial) justification, keeping your reader’s perspective foremost in mind. Remove these points if you cannot substantiate them further.
- Be open to rearranging your ideas. Check whether any sections feel out of place and whether your ideas could be better organized.
- If you find that old ideas do not fit as well as you anticipated, you should cut them out or condense them. You might also find that new and well-suited ideas occurred to you during the writing of the first draft — now is the time to make them part of the paper.
The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible.
- Confirm that your paper completes every task specified in your assignment sheet.
- Check for logical organization and flow of paragraphs.
- Check paragraphs against the introduction and thesis statement.
Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:
- each sentence helps support the topic sentence.
- no unnecessary or irrelevant information is present.
- all technical terms your audience might not know are identified.
Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .
Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading or create an APA title page .
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Checklist: Research paper
I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.
My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.
My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .
My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .
Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .
Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.
I have used appropriate transitions to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.
My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.
My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.
My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.
I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.
I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .
I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.
I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).
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Academic Phrases for Writing Literature Review Section of a Research Paper
Overview | Abstract | Introduction | Literature Review | Materials & Methods | Results & Discussion | Conclusion & Future Work | Acknowledgements & Appendix
The literature review should clearly demonstrate that the author has a good knowledge of the research area. Literature review typically occupies one or two passages in the introduction section. A well-written literature review should provide a critical appraisal of previous studies related to the current research area rather than a simple summary of prior works. The author shouldn’t shy away from pointing out the shortcomings of previous works. However, criticising other’s work without any basis can weaken your paper. This is a perfect place to coin your research question and justify the need for such a study. It is also worth pointing out towards the end of the review that your study is unique and there is no direct literature addressing this issue. Add a few sentences about the significance of your research and how this will add value to the body of knowledge.
The literature review section of your research paper should include the following:
- Previous literature
- Limitations of previous research
- Research questions
- Research to be explored
1. Previous literature
The literature review shows that __ Previous research showed __ Seminal contributions have been made by __ A series of recent studies has indicated that __ Several theories have been proposed to __, some focusing on __, others on __ There has been numerous studies to investigate __ This has been used in several studies to assess __ Previous studies have shown __ Several studies suggest that __ This has also been explored in prior studies by __ Prior research suggests that __ Previous studies have emphasized __ The majority of prior research has applied __ Most early studies as well as current work focus on __ For instance, the following studies were conducted on __ Studies of __are well documented, it is also well acknowledged that __ A number of authors have recognized __ Some authors have also suggested that __ Some authors have driven the further development of __ This has been discussed by a great number of authors in literature. For example, research has provided evidence for __ The authors bring some information about the background of the problem, __ As has been previously reported in the literature, __ A large number of existing studies in the broader literature have examined __ The literature review shows that __ There exists a considerable body of literature on __ In short, the literature pertaining to __ strongly suggests that __ Over time, an extensive literature has developed on __ This section presents a review of recent literature on __ This paper begins with a short review of the literature regarding the __ Several methods are reported in the literature to address this issue. There is a wide choice of __ available in the literature. This section reviews the literature related to __ It was reported in literature that __ A recent study by __ concluded that __ In the light of reported __ it is conceivable that __ The method introduced by __ has the advantage that __ One method employed by __ is __ A more comprehensive description can be found in __ For example, recent research suggests that __ This was successfully established as described by __ The author employed a __ methodology which prescribes the use of __
2. Limitations of previous research
A number of questions regarding __ remain to be addressed. A closer look to the literature on __, however, reveals a number of gaps and shortcomings. This question has previously never been addressed because__ Most studies have relied on __ Previous studies by __ cannot be considered as conclusive because __ Previous studies have almost exclusively focused on __ This has been previously assessed only to a very limited extent because __ In the present studies __ were constrained to __ In previous studies were limited to __ Although results appear consistent with prior research, they appear inconsistent with __ These are previously unstudied because __ As far as we know, no previous research has investigated __ Moreover, although research has illuminated __ no study to date has examined __ Despite decades of research, this continues to be debated among __ This section points out some of the problems encountered in the extant research. Although there are many studies, the research in __ remains limited. However, the existing research has many problems in representing __ The literature on __ is less consistent Historically, there has been a great deal of confusion in the literature regarding __ This approach remains briefly addressed in the literature. These are rarely analyzed in the literature as __ There are key questions and notions that are still not discussed in the literature __ This is not clearly presented in the literature because __ This paper addresses the need for __, so far lacking in the scientific literature. To fill this literature gap, this paper identifies __ Only a few works in literature demonstrate __ Although studies have been conducted by many authors, this problem is still insufficiently explored. To our knowledge, no prior studies have examined __ However, the existing research has many problems in __ Therefore, important issue in the literature is __ However, we argue that previous literature suffers from certain weaknesses: __ Previous research can only be considered a first step towards a more profound understanding of __ The previous studies reveal that __ are usually the most problematic to __
3. Research questions
More specific research questions will be introduced and investigated in __ A further question is whether __ Finally, another promising line of research would be __ The study addresses several further questions on __ Some of the interesting questions in this context are __ In order to address the questions outlined above, we report here __ These questions are of central interest as much recent research in __ Furthermore, __ is arguably an important question to be addressed. The question now is how __ can be used to explain __ Study addresses the research question __ In order to properly address this question, we __ An important question associated with __ is __ A critical open question is whether __ A still unsolved question is whether __ This remains an open question as __ This question has previously never been addressed because __ This study offers a test of __ research question Study addresses the research question __ Even in general __ research strategies is needed to explain __ The researcher should be interested here in __ Many questions remain unanswered __ There are some potentially open questions about the validity of __ The question that then naturally arises is __ The question then becomes how best to define__ This was an important question to study as __
4. Research to be explored
A more systematic and theoretical analysis is required for __ As the authors note earlier, more work is necessary to__ Additional studies to understand more completely the key tenets of __ are required. The unexpected findings signal the need for additional studies to understand more about __ This paper addresses __, so far lacking in the scientific literature. A new approach is therefore needed for __ One of the tough challenges for all researchers in this domain is __
Academic Phrases for Writing Conclusion Section of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to conclusion section such as summary of results and future work.
Academic Phrases for Writing Results & Discussion Sections of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to results and discussion sections such as findings, limitations, arguments, and comparison to previous studies.
Useful Phrases and Sentences for Academic & Research Paper Writing
In this blog, we explain various sections of a research paper and give you an overview of what these sections should contain.
Academic Phrases for Writing Introduction Section of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to introduction section such as opening statement, problem definition and research aims.
Academic Phrases for Writing Acknowledgements & Appendix Sections of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to thanking colleagues, acknowledging funders and writing the appendix section.
Academic Phrases for Writing Methods Section of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to materials and methods such as experimental setup, data collection & analysis, and statistical testing.
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can such phrases be tracked as plagiarism? if yes, then what is left for the researchers to put on their paper?
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Very useful! With this, I will improve my writing style!
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Thank you for this site, it helps me a lot when writing my literature reviews for my Research Module
Valuable information, thank you.
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This is invaluable. I will study it closely and incorporate as per guidance.
Amazing contents and great help. Thank you!
Could I copy your free academic phrases handbook for my research? Thank you
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The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. It aims to provide you with examples of some of the phraseological 'nuts and bolts' of writing organised according to the main sections of a research paper or dissertation (see the top menu ).
Many non-native researchers begin their writing career by reading extensively about their topic in English, and noting down useful generic phrases that they can then 'paste' into their own work....
section of a research paper. These are examples of only some, but not all, of the phrases that can be used in the Discussion section of all APA Style papers. Check with your instructor for specific guidelines on the content to include in your Discussion section. Summarizing your study results • The purpose of this study was to gain a better
Sep 22, 2022 21,331 Useful Research Words and Phrases for All Sections Wordvice HJ Academic-Writing-Cheat-Sheet-English-1 Click to view the entire reference guide. What are the best research words and phrases to use in a paper?
Also, when you submit your paper to a journal, potential reviewers only see the abstract when invited by an editor to review a manuscript. The abstract should include one or two lines briefly describing the topic, scope, purpose, results, and conclusion of your work.
Transitional words and phrases can create powerful links between ideas in your paper and can help your reader understand the logic of your paper. However, these words all have different meanings, nuances, and connotations. Before using a particular transitional word in your paper, be sure you understand its meaning and usage completely and be sure…
To help you build a strong arsenal of commonly used phrases in academic papers, we've compiled a list of synonyms you might want to consider when drafting or editing your research paper.
The five steps in this article will help you put together an effective introduction for either type of research paper. Table of contents Step 1: Introduce your topic Step 2: Describe the background Step 3: Establish your research problem Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper Research paper introduction examples
The academic writing phrases are organized into following sections (1) Introduction; (2) Problem, Solution & Difficulties; (3) Literature Review; (4) Previous Evidence and Findings; (5) Research Gap; (6) Your Work; (7) Section Intro and Scope; (8) Materials and Methods; (9) Measurements and Calculations; (10) Te...
Causal Transitions These terms and phrases signal the reasons, conditions, purposes, circumstances, and cause-and-effect relationships. These transitions often come after an important point in the research paper has been established or to explore hypothetical relationships or circumstances. Sequential Transitions
This research has investigated …The study set out to …The purpose of the present research was to …The study has shown that …An important finding to emerge in this study is …The results are significant in three respects …In general, therefore, the results show …The findings add to our understanding of …This study adds to t...
You have done remarkable research and now you plan to write a paper to share your findings with the world. In the following article we present to you a list of such 'tailor-made', frequently used phrases specific for each section of your manuscript. ... We hope these academic phrases will assist you in the logical development of your ...
Understand the assignment. Choose a research paper topic. Conduct preliminary research. Develop a thesis statement. Create a research paper outline. Write a first draft of the research paper. Write the introduction. Write a compelling body of text. Write the conclusion.
Popular answers (1) Santosh Tirunagari Middlesex University, UK 19th Sep, 2017 Here is a nice collection from REF-N-WRITE website blog (1-6) and other sites (7-12): 1. Academic Phrases &...
Academic Phrases for Writing Acknowledgements & Appendix Sections of a Research Paper By refnwrite September 14, 2017 December 20, 2022 In this blog, we discuss phrases related to thanking colleagues, acknowledging funders and writing the appendix section.
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to introduction section such as opening statement, problem definition and research aims. Introduction section should provide the reader with a brief overview of your topic and the reasons for conducting research. The introduction is a perfect place to set the scene and make a good first impression. Regarding word count, introduction typically occupies ...
A well-written literature review should provide a critical appraisal of previous studies related to the current research area rather than a simple summary of prior works. The author shouldn't shy away from pointing out the shortcomings of previous works. However, criticising other's work without any basis can weaken your paper.
"Moreover", "furthermore" and "in addition" are also great linking phrases to begin a new paragraph. Here are some examples: The dissociation of tau protein from microtubules destabilises the latter resulting in changes to cell structure, and neuronal transport.
Academic phrasebank generally refers to a library comprising a large number of academic and scientific phrases that are deemed acceptable for use in academic essays and papers. Ref-n-Write ...